Vito Acconci - Αυτό που πραγματικά θέλω είναι η επανάσταση

Αυτα ειναι τα λογια του σπουδαίου Vito Acconci (1940 - 2017) σε μια συνέντευξη του στην διαδικτυακή τηλεόραση του San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

Η μοναξιά και η απώλεια στα έργα του Mark Morrisroe

Περπατώντας άγρια στις αίθουσες του Σχολείου Τέχνης με τα σκισμένα μπλουζάκια του, αποκαλώντας τον εαυτό του Mark Dirt, ήταν ο πρώτος πανκ...

Jacques Henri Lartigue Φωτογραφιζοντας την ευτυχια

Στην Ευρώπη κανένας κριτικός δεν θα τολμούσε να αποδώσει καλλιτεχνική εγκυρότητα σε έννοιες όπως «ελαφρότητα» και «ευτυχία»...

Η συλλογή Bennett
The Bennett Collection of Women Realists

Οι Elaine και Steven Bennett είναι αφοσιωμένο στην προώθηση της καριέρας των γυναικών καλλιτεχνών, αφού «οι γυναίκες υποεκπροσωπούνται...».

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The island Britain is 800 miles long, and 200 miles broad. And there are in the island five nations; English, Welsh (or British) , Scottish, Pictish, and Latin. The first inhabitants were the Britons, who came from Armenia , and first peopled Britain southward. Then happened it, that the Picts came south from Scythia, with long ships, not many; and, landing first in the northern part of Ireland, they told the Scots that they must dwell there. But they would not give them leave; for the Scots told them that they could not all dwell there together; "But," said the Scots, "we can nevertheless give you advice. We know another island here to the east. There you may dwell, if you will; and whosoever withstandeth you, we will assist you, that you may gain it." Then went the Picts and entered this land northward. Southward the Britons possessed it, as we before said. And the Picts obtained wives of the Scots, on condition that they chose their kings always on the female side; which they have continued to do, so long since. And it happened, in the run of years, that some party of Scots went from Ireland into Britain, and acquired some portion of this land. Their leader was called Reoda , from whom they are named Dalreodi (or Dalreathians).

Sixty winters ere that Christ was born, Caius Julius, emperor of the Romans, with eighty ships sought Britain. There he was first beaten in a dreadful fight, and lost a great part of his army. Then he let his army abide with the Scots , and went south into Gaul. There he gathered six hundred ships, with which he went back into Britain. When they first rushed together, Caesar's tribune, whose name was Labienus , was slain. Then took the Welsh sharp piles, and drove them with great clubs into the water, at a certain ford of the river called Thames. When the Romans found that, they would not go over the ford. Then fled the Britons to the fastnesses of the woods; and Caesar, having after much fighting gained many of the chief towns, went back into Gaul .

B.C. 60 . Before the incarnation of Christ sixty years, Gaius Julius the emperor, first of the Romans, sought the land of Britain; and he crushed the Britons in battle, and overcame them; and nevertheless he was unable to gain any empire there.

A.D. 1 . Octavianus reigned fifty-six winters; and in the forty-second year of his reign Christ was born. Then three astrologers from the east came to worship Christ; and the children in Bethlehem were slain by Herod in persecution of Christ.

A.D. 3 . This year died Herod, stabbed by his own hand; and Archelaus his son succeeded him. The child Christ was also this year brought back again from Egypt.

A.D. 6 . From the beginning of the world to this year were agone five thousand and two hundred winters.

A.D. 11 . This year Herod the son of Antipater undertook the government in Judea.

A.D. 12 . This year Philip and Herod divided Judea into four kingdoms.

(A.D. 12 . This year Judea was divided into four tetrarchies.)

A.D. 16 . This year Tiberius succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 26 . This year Pilate began to reign over the Jews.

A.D. 30 . This year was Christ baptized; and Peter and Andrew were converted, together with James, and John, and Philip, and all the twelve apostles.

A.D. 33 . This year was Christ crucified; about five thousand two hundred and twenty six winters from the beginning of the world.

A.D. 34 . This year was St. Paul converted, and St. Stephen stoned.

A.D. 35 . This year the blessed Peter the apostle settled an episcopal see in the city of Antioch.

A.D. 37 . This year Pilate slew himself with his own hand.

A.D. 39 . This year Caius undertook the empire.

A.D. 44 . This year the blessed Peter the apostle settled an episcopal see at Rome; and James, the brother of John, was slain by Herod.

A.D. 45 . This year died Herod, who slew James one year ere his own death.

A.D. 46 . This year Claudius, the second of the Roman emperors who invaded Britain, took the greater part of the island into his power, and added the Orkneys to rite dominion of the Romans. This was in the fourth year of his reign. And in the same year happened the great famine in Syria which Luke mentions in the book called "The Acts of the Apostles". After Claudius Nero succeeded to the empire, who almost lost the island Britain through his incapacity.

(A.D. 46 . This year the Emperor Claudius came to Britain, and subdued a large part of the island; and he also added the island of Orkney to the dominion of the Romans.)

A.D. 47 . This year Mark, the evangelist in Egypt beginneth to write the gospel.

(A.D. 47 . This was in the fourth year of his reign, and in this same year was the great famine in Syria which Luke speaks of in the book called "Actus Apostolorum".)

(A.D. 47 . This year Claudius, king of the Romans, went with an army into Britain, and subdued the island, and subjected all the Picts and Welsh to the rule of the Romans.)

A.D. 50 . This year Paul was sent bound to Rome.

A.D. 62 . This year James, the brother of Christ, suffered.

A.D. 63 . This year Mark the evangelist departed this life.

A.D. 69 . This year Peter and Paul suffered.

A.D. 70 . This year Vespasian undertook the empire.

A.D. 71 . This year Titus, son of Vespasian, slew in Jerusalem eleven hundred thousand Jews.

A.D. 81 . This year Titus came to the empire, after Vespasian, who said that he considered the day lost in which he did no good.

A.D. 83 . This year Domitian, the brother of Titus, assumed the government.

A.D. 84 . This year John the evangelist in the island Patmos wrote the book called "The Apocalypse".

A.D. 90 . This year Simon, the apostle, a relation of Christ, was crucified: and John the evangelist rested at Ephesus.

A.D. 92 . This year died Pope Clement.

A.D. 110 . This year Bishop Ignatius suffered.

A.D. 116 . This year Hadrian the Caesar began to reign.

A.D. 145 . This year Marcus Antoninus and Aurelius his brother
succeeded to the empire.

(A.D. 167 . This year Eleutherius succeeded to the popedom, and held it fifteen years; and in the same year Lucius, king of the Britons, sent and begged baptism of him. And he soon sent it him, and they continued in the true faith until the time of Diocletian.)

A.D. 189 . This year Severus came to the empire; and went with his army into Britain, and subdued in battle a great part of the island. Then wrought he a mound of turf, with a broad wall thereupon, from sea to sea, for the defence of the Britons. He reigned seventeen years; and then ended his days at York. His son Bassianus succeeded him in the empire. His other son, who perished, was called Geta. This year Eleutherius undertook the bishopric of Rome, and held it honourably for fifteen winters. To him Lucius, king of the Britons, sent letters, and prayed that he might be made a Christian. He obtained his request; and they continued afterwards in the right belief until the reign of Diocletian.

A.D. 199 . In this year was found the holy rood.

A.D. 283 . This year suffered Saint Alban the Martyr.

A.D. 343 . This year died St. Nicolaus.

A.D. 379 . This year Gratian succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 381 . This year Maximus the Caesar came to the empire. He was born in the land of Britain, whence he passed over into Gaul. He there slew the Emperor Gratian; and drove his brother, whose name was Valentinian, from his country (Italy). The same Valentinian afterwards collected an army, and slew Maximus; whereby he gained the empire. About this time arose the error of Pelagius over the world.

A.D. 418 . This year the Romans collected all the hoards of gold (14) that were in Britain; and some they hid in the earth, so that no man afterwards might find them, and some they carried away with them into Gaul.

A.D. 423 . This year Theodosius the younger succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 429 . This year Bishop Palladius was sent from Pope Celesrinus to the Scots, that he might establish their faith.

A.D. 430 . This year Patricius was sent from Pope Celestinus to preach baptism to the Scots.

(A.D. 430 . This year Patrick was sent by Pope Celestine to preach baptism to the Scots.)

A.D. 435 . This year the Goths sacked the city of Rome; and never since have the Romans reigned in Britain. This was about eleven hundred and ten winters after it was built. They reigned altogether in Britain four hundred and seventy winters since Gaius Julius first sought that land.

A.D. 443 . This year sent the Britons over sea to Rome, and begged assistance against the Picts; but they had none, for the Romans were at war with Atila, king of the Huns. Then sent they to the Angles, and requested the same from the nobles of that nation.

A.D. 444 . This year died St. Martin.

A.D. 448 . This year John the Baptist showed his head to two monks, who came from the eastern country to Jerusalem for the sake of prayer, in the place that whilom was the palace of Herod.

A.D. 449 . This year Marcian and Valentinian assumed the empire, and reigned seven winters. In their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by Wurtgern, king of the Britons to his assistance, landed in Britain in a place that is called Ipwinesfleet; first of all to support the Britons, but they afterwards fought against them. The king directed them to fight against the Picts; and they did so; and obtained the victory wheresoever they came. They then sent to the Angles, and desired them to send more assistance. They described the worthlessness of the Britons, and the richness of the land. They then sent them greater support. Then came the men from three powers of Germany; the Old Saxons, the Angles, and the Jutes. From the Jutes are descended the men of Kent, the Wightwarians (that is, the tribe that now dwelleth in the Isle of Wight), and that kindred in Wessex that men yet call the kindred of the Jutes. From the Old Saxons came the people of Essex and Sussex and Wessex. From Anglia, which has ever since remained waste between the Jutes and the Saxons, came the East Angles, the Middle Angles, the Mercians, and all of those north of the Humber. Their leaders were two brothers, Hengest and Horsa; who were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils was the son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden. From this Woden arose all our royal kindred, and that of the Southumbrians also.

(A.D. 449 . And in their days Vortigern invited the Angles thither, and they came to Britain in three ceols, at the place called Wippidsfleet.)

A.D. 455 . This year Hengest and Horsa fought with Wurtgern the king on the spot that is called Aylesford. His brother Horsa being there slain, Hengest afterwards took to the kingdom with his son Esc.

A.D. 457 . This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Britons on the spot that is called Crayford, and there slew four thousand men. The Britons then forsook the land of Kent, and in great consternation fled to London.

A.D. 465 . This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, nigh Wippedfleet; and there slew twelve leaders, all Welsh. On their side a thane was there slain, whose name was Wipped.

A.D. 473 . This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, and took immense Booty. And the Welsh fled from the English like fire.

A.D. 477 . This year came Ella to Britain, with his three sons, Cymen, and Wlenking, and Cissa, in three ships; landing at a place that is called Cymenshore. There they slew many of the Welsh; and some in flight ( fuga ) they drove into the wood that is called Andred'sley.

A.D. 482 . This year the blessed Abbot Benedict shone in this world, by the splendour of those virtues which the blessed Gregory records in the book of Dialogues.

A.D. 485 . This year Ella fought with the Welsh nigh Mecred's-Burnsted.

A.D. 488 . This year Esc succeeded to the kingdom; and was king of the men of Kent twenty-four winters.

A.D. 490 . This year Ella and Cissa besieged the city of Andred, and slew all that were therein; nor was one Briten left there afterwards.

A.D. 495 . This year came two leaders into Britain, Cerdic and Cynric his son, with five ships, at a place that is called Cerdic's-ore. And they fought with the Welsh the same day. Then he died, and his son Cynric succeeded to the government, and held it six and twenty winters. Then he died; and Ceawlin, his son, succeeded, who reigned seventeen years. Then he died; and Ceol succeeded to the government, and reigned five years. When he died, Ceolwulf, his brother, succeeded, and reigned seventeen years. Their kin goeth to Cerdic. Then succeeded Cynebils, Ceolwulf's brother's son, to the kingdom; and reigned one and thirty winters. And he first of West-Saxon kings received baptism. Then succeeded Cenwall, who was the son of Cynegils, and reigned one and thirty winters. Then held Sexburga, his queen, the government one year after him. Then succeeded Escwine to the kingdom, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and held it two years.
Then succeeded Centwine, the son of Cynegils, to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and reigned nine years. Then succeeded Ceadwall to the government, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and held it three years. Then succeeded Ina to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned thirty-seven winters.
Then succeeded Ethelheard, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned sixteen years. Then succeeded Cuthred, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned sixteen winters. Then succeeded Sigebriht, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned one year. Then succeeded Cynwulf, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned one and thirty winters. Then succeeded Brihtric, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned sixteen years. Then succeeded Egbert to the kingdom, and held it seven and thirty winters, and seven months.
Then succeeded Ethelwulf, his son, and reigned eighteen years and a half. Ethelwulf was the son of Egbert, Egbert of Ealmund, Ealmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild, Ingild of Cenred (Ina of Cenred, Cuthburga of Cenred, and Cwenburga of Cenred), Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cuthwulf, Cuthwulf of Cuthwine, Cuthwine of Celm, Celm of Cynric, Cynric of Creoda, Creoda of Cerdic. Then succeeded Ethelbald, the son of Ethelwulf, to the kingdom, and held it five years. Then succeeded Ethelbert, his brother, and reigned five years. Then succeeded Ethelred, his brother, to the kingdom, and held it five years. Then succeeded Alfred, their brother, to the government. And then had elapsed of his age three and twenty winters, and three hundred and ninety-six winters from the time when his kindred first gained the land of Wessex from the Welsh. And he held the kingdom a year and a half less than thirty winters. Then succeeded Edward, the son of Alfred, and reigned twenty-four winters. When he died, then succeeded Athelstan, his son, and reigned fourteen years and seven weeks and three days. Then succeeded Edmund, his brother, and reigned six years and a half, wanting two nights.
Then succeeded Edred, his brother, and reigned nine years and six weeks. Then succeeded Edwy, the son of Edmund, and reigned three years and thirty-six weeks, wanting two days. When he died, then succeeded Edgar, his brother, and reigned sixteen years and eight weeks and two nights. When he died, then succeeded Edward, the son of Edgar, and reigned

A.D. 501 . This year Porta and his two sons, Beda and Mela, came into Britain, with two ships, at a place called Portsmouth. They soon landed, and slew on the spot a young Briton of very high rank.

A.D. 508 . This year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king, whose name was Natanleod, and five thousand men with him. After this was the land named Netley, from him, as far as Charford.

A.D. 509 . This year St. Benedict, the abbot, father of all the monks, ascended to heaven.

A.D. 514 . This year came the West-Saxons into Britain, with three ships, at the place that is called Cerdic's-ore. And Stuff and Wihtgar fought with the Britons, and put them to flight.

A.D. 519 . This year Cerdic and Cynric undertook the government of the West-Saxons; the same year they fought with the Britons at a place now called Charford. From that day have reigned the children of the West-Saxon kings.

A.D. 527 . This year Cerdic and Cynric fought with the Britons in the place that is called Cerdic's-ley.

A.D. 530 . This year Cerdic and Cynric took the isle of Wight, and slew many men in Carisbrook.

A.D. 534 . This year died Cerdic, the first king of the West-Saxons. Cynric his son succeeded to the government, and reigned afterwards twenty-six winters. And they gave to their two nephews, Stuff and Wihtgar, the whole of the Isle of Wight.

A.D. 538 . This year the sun was eclipsed, fourteen days before the calends of March, from before morning until nine.

A.D. 540 . This year the sun was eclipsed on the twelfth day before the calends of July; and the stars showed themselves full nigh half an hour over nine.

A.D. 544 . This year died Wihtgar; and men buried him at Carisbrook.

A.D. 547 . This year Ida began his reign; from whom first arose the royal kindred of the Northumbrians. Ida was the son of Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa of Ingwy, Ingwy of Angenwit, Angenwit of Alloc, Alloc of Bennoc, Bennoc of Brand, Brand of Balday, Balday of Woden. Woden of Fritholaf, Fritholaf of Frithowulf, Frithowulf of Finn, Finn of Godolph, Godolph of Geata. Ida reigned twelve years. He built Bamburgh-Castle, which was first surrounded with a hedge, and afterwards with a wall.

A.D. 552 . This year Cynric fought with the Britons on the spot that is called Sarum, and put them to flight. Cerdic was the father of Cynric, Cerdic was the son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wye, Wye of Frewin, Frewin of Frithgar, Frithgar of Brand, Brand of Balday, Balday of Woden. In this year Ethelbert, the son of Ermenric, was born, who on the two and thirtieth year of his reign received the rite of baptism, the first of all the kings in Britain.

A.D. 556 . This year Cynric and Ceawlin fought with the Britons at Beranbury.

A.D. 560 . This year Ceawlin undertook the government of the
West-Saxons; and Ella, on the death of Ida, that of the
Northumbrians; each of whom reigned thirty winters. Ella was the
son of Iff, Iff of Usfrey, Usfrey of Wilgis, Wilgis of
Westerfalcon, Westerfalcon of Seafowl, Seafowl of Sebbald,
Sebbald of Sigeat, Sigeat of Swaddy, Swaddy of Seagirt, Seagar of
Waddy, Waddy of Woden, Woden of Frithowulf. This year Ethelbert
came to the kingdom of the Cantuarians, and held it fifty-three
winters. In his days the holy Pope Gregory sent us baptism.
That was in the two and thirtieth year of his reign. And
Columba, the mass-priest, came to the Picts, and converted them
to the belief of Christ. They are the dwellers by the northern
moors. And their king gave him the island of Hii, consisting of
five hides, as they say, where Columba built a monastary. There
he was abbot two and thirty winters; and there he died, when he
was seventy-seven years old. The place his successors yet have.
The Southern Picts were long before baptized by Bishop Ninnia,
who was taught at Rome. His church or monastery is at Hwiterne,
hallowed in the name of St. Martin, where he resteth with many
holy men. Now, therefore, shall there be ever in Hii an abbot,
and no bishop; and to him shall be subject all the bishops of the
Scots; because Columba was an abbot -- no bishop.

(A.D. 565 . This year Columba the presbyter came from the Scots
among the Britons, to instruct the Picts, and he built a
monastery in the island of Hii.)

A.D. 568 . This year Ceawlin, and Cutha the brother of Ceawlin,
fought with Ethelbert, and pursued him into Kent. And they slew
two aldermen at Wimbledon, Oslake and Cnebba.

A.D. 571 . This year Cuthulf fought with the Britons at Bedford,
and took four towns, Lenbury, Aylesbury, Benson, and Ensham. And
this same year he died.

A.D. 577 . This year Cuthwin and Ceawlin fought with the Britons,
and slew three kings, Commail, and Condida, and Farinmail, on the
spot that is called Derham, and took from them three cities,
Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath.

A.D. 583 . This year Mauricius succeeded to the empire of the

A.D. 584 . This year Ceawlin and Cutha fought with the Britons on
the spot that is called Fretherne. There Cutha was slain. And
Ceawlin took many towns, as well as immense booty and wealth. He
then retreated to his own people.

A.D. 588 . This year died King Ella; and Ethelric reigned after
him five years.

A.D. 591 . This year there was a great slaughter of Britons at
Wanborough; Ceawlin was driven from his kingdom, and Ceolric
reigned six years.

A.D. 592 . This year Gregory succeeded to the papacy at Rome.

A.D. 593 . This year died Ceawlin, and Cwichelm, and Cryda; and
Ethelfrith succeeded to the kingdom of the Northumbrians. He was
the son of Ethelric; Ethelric of Ida.

A.D. 596 . This year Pope Gregory sent Augustine to Britain with
very many monks, to preach the word of God to the English people.

A.D. 597 . This year began Ceolwulf to reign over the West-
Saxons; and he constantly fought and conquered, either with the
Angles, or the Welsh, or the Picts, or the Scots. He was the son
of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa,
Elesa of Gewis, Gewis of Wye, Wye of Frewin, Frewin of Frithgar,
Frithgar of Brand, Brand of Balday, and Balday of Woden. This
year came Augustine and his companions to England.

A.D. 601 . This year Pope Gregory sent the pall to Archbishop
Augustine in Britain, with very many learned doctors to assist
him; and Bishop Paulinus converted Edwin, king of the
Northumbrians, to baptism.

A.D. 603 . This year Aeden, king of the Scots, fought with the
Dalreathians, and with Ethelfrith, king of the Northumbrians, at
Theakstone; where he lost almost all his army. Theobald also,
brother of Ethelfrith, with his whole armament, was slain. None
of the Scottish kings durst afterwards bring an army against this
nation. Hering, the son of Hussa, led the army thither.

(A.D. 603 . This year Aethan, King of the Scots, fought against
the Dalreods and against Ethelfrith, king of the North-humbrians,
at Daegsanstane [Dawston?], and they slew almost all his army.
There Theodbald, Ethelfrith's brother, was slain with all his
band. Since then no king of the Scots has dared to lead an army
against this nation. Hering, the son of Hussa, led the enemy

A.D. 604 . This year Augustine consecrated two bishops, Mellitus
and Justus. Mellitus he sent to preach baptism to the East-
Saxons. Their king was called Seabert, the son of Ricola,
Ethelbert's sister, whom Ethelbert placed there as king.
Ethelbert also gave Mellitus the bishopric of London; and to
Justus he gave the bishopric of Rochester, which is twenty-four
miles from Canterbury.

(A.D. 604 . This year Augustine consecrated two bishops,
Mellitus and Justus. He sent Mellitus to preach baptism to the
East-Saxons, whose king was called Sebert, son of Ricole, the
sister of Ethelbert, and whom Ethelbert had there appointed king.
And Ethelbert gave Mellitus a bishop's see in London, and to
Justus he gave Rochester, which is twenty-four miles from

A.D. 606 . This year died Gregory; about ten years since he sent
us baptism. His father was called Gordianus, and his mother

A.D. 607 . This year Ceolwulf fought with the South-Saxons. And
Ethelfrith led his army to Chester; where he slew an innumerable
host of the Welsh; and so was fulfilled the prophecy of
Augustine, wherein he saith "If the Welsh will not have peace
with us, they shall perish at the hands of the Saxons." There
were also slain two hundred priests, who came thither to
pray for the army of the Welsh. Their leader was called
Brocmail, who with some fifty men escaped thence.

A.D. 611 . This year Cynegils succeeded to the government in
Wessex, and held it one and thirty winters. Cynegils was the son
of Ceol, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric.

A.D. 614 . This year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought at Bampton, and
slew two thousand and forty-six of the Welsh.

A.D. 616 . This year died Ethelbert, king of Kent, the first of
English kings that received baptism: he was the son of Ermenric.
He reigned fifty-six winters, and was succeeded by his son
Eadbald. And in this same year had elapsed from the beginning of
the world five thousand six hundred and eighteen winters. This
Eadbald renounced his baptism, and lived in a heathen manner; so
that he took to wife the relict of his father. Then Laurentius,
who was archbishop in Kent, meant to depart southward over sea,
and abandon everything. But there came to him in the night the
apostle Peter, and severely chastised him, because he would
so desert the flock of God. And he charged him to go to the
king, and teach him the right belief. And he did so; and the
king returned to the right belief. In this king's days the same
Laurentius, who was archbishop in Kent after Augustine, departed
this life on the second of February, and was buried near
Augustine. The holy Augustine in his lifetime invested him
bishop, to the end that the church of Christ, which yet was new
in England, should at no time after his decease be without an
archbishop. After him Mellitus, who was first Bishop of London,
succeeded to the archbishopric. The people of London, where
Mellitus was before, were then heathens: and within five winters
of this time, during the reign of Eadbald, Mellitus died. To him
succeeded Justus, who was Bishop of Rochester, whereto he
consecrated Romanus bishop.

(A.D. 616 . In that time Laurentius was archbishop, and for the
sorrowfulness which he had on account of the king's unbelief he
was minded to forsake this country entirely, and go over sea; but
St. Peter the apostle scourged him sorely one night, because he
wished thus to forsake the flock of God, and commanded him to
teach boldly the true faith to the king; and he did so, and the
king turned to the right (faith). In the days of this same king,
Eadbald, this Laurentius died. The holy Augustine, while yet in
sound health, ordained him bishop, in order that the community of
Christ, which was yet new in England, should not after his
decease be at any time without an archbishop. After him
Mellitus, who had been previously Bishop of London, succeeded to
the archbishopric. And within five years of the decease of
Laurentius, while Eadbald still reigned, Mellitus departed to

A.D. 617 . This year was Ethelfrith, king of the Northumbrians,
slain by Redwald, king of the East-Angles; and Edwin, the son of
Ella, having succeeded to the kingdom, subdued all Britain,
except the men of Kent alone, and drove out the Ethelings, the
sons of Ethelfrith, namely, Enfrid. Oswald, Oswy, Oslac, Oswood.
Oslaf, and Offa.

A.D. 624 . This year died Archbishop Mellitus.

A.D. 625 . This year Paulinus was invested bishop of the
Northumbrians, by Archbishop Justus, on the twelfth day before
the calends of August.

(A.D. 625 . This year Archbishop Justus consecrated Paulinus
bishop of the North-humbrians.)

A.D. 626 . This year came Eamer from Cwichelm, king of the West-
Saxons, with a design to assassinate King Edwin; but he killed
Lilla his thane, and Forthere, and wounded the king. The same
night a daughter was born to Edwin, whose name was Eanfleda.
Then promised the king to Paulinus, that he would devote his
daughter to God, if he would procure at the hand of God, that he
might destroy his enemy, who had sent the assassin to him. He
then advanced against the West-Saxons with an army, felled on the
spot five kings, and slew many of their men. This year Eanfleda,
the daughter of King Edwin, was baptized, on the holy eve of
Pentecost. And the king within twelve months was baptized, at
Easter, with all his people. Easter was then on the twelfth of
April. This was done at York, where he had ordered a church to
be built of timber, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter.
There the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; and there he
afterwards ordered a larger church to be built of stone. This
year Penda began to reign; and reigned thirty winters. He had
seen fifty winters when he began to reign. Penda was the son of
Wybba, Wybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba,
Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of
Offa, Offa of Wearmund, Wearmund of Whitley, Whitley of Woden.

A.D. 627 . This year was King Edwin baptized at Easter, with all
his people, by Paulinus, who also preached baptism in Lindsey,
where the first person who believed was a certain rich man, of
the name of Bleek, with all his people. At this time Honorius
succeeded Boniface in the papacy, and sent hither to Paulinus the
pall; and Archbishop Justus having departed this life on the
tenth of November, Honorius was consecrated at Lincoln Archbishop
of Canterbury by Paulinus; and Pope Honorius sent him the pall.
And he sent an injunction to the Scots, that they should return
to the right celebration of Easter.

(A.D. 627 . This year, at Easter, Paulinus baptized Edwin king
of the North-humbrians, with his people; and earlier within the
same year, at Pentecost, he had baptized Eanfled, daughter of the
same king.)

A.D. 628 . This year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought with Penda at
Cirencester, and afterwards entered into a treaty there.

A.D. 632 . This year was Orpwald baptized.

A.D. 633 . This year King Edwin was slain by Cadwalla and Penda,
on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October. He reigned
seventeen years. His son Osfrid was also slain with him. After
this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the
Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga, the
relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and Honorius
received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of
Rochester, where he continued to his death.

A.D. 634 . This year Osric, whom Paulinus baptized, succeeded to
the government of Deira. He was the son of Elfric, the uncle of
Edwin. And to Bernicia succeeded Eanfrith, son of Ethelfrith.
This year also Bishop Birinus first preached baptism to the West-
Saxons, under King Cynegils. The said Birinus went thither by
the command of Pope Honorius; and he was bishop there to the end
of his life. Oswald also this year succeeded to the government
of the Northumbrians, and reigned nine winters. The ninth year
was assigned to him on account of the heathenism in which those
lived who reigned that one year betwixt him and Edwin.

A.D. 635 . This year King Cynegils was baptized by Bishop Birinus
at Dorchester; and Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was his

A.D. 636 . This year King Cwichelm was baptized at Dorchester,
and died the same year. Bishop Felix also preached to the East-
Angles the belief of Christ.

A.D. 639 . This year Birinus baptized King Cuthred at Dorchester,
and received him as his son.

A.D. 640 . This year died Eadbald, King of Kent, after a reign of
twenty-five winters. He had two sons, Ermenred and Erkenbert;
and Erkenbert reigned there after his father. He overturned all
the idols in the kingdom, and first of English kings appointed a
fast before Easter. His daughter was called Ercongota -- holy
damsel of an illustrious sire! whose mother was Sexburga, the
daughter of Anna, king of the East-Angles. Ermenred also begat
two sons, who were afterwards martyred by Thunnor.

A.D. 642 . This year Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain
by Penda, king of the Southumbrians, at Mirfield, on the fifth
day of August; and his body was buried at Bardney. His holiness
and miracles were afterwards displayed on manifold occasions
throughout this island; and his hands remain still uncorrupted at
Barnburgh. The same year in which Oswald was slain, Oswy his
brother succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and
reigned two less than thirty years.

A.D. 643 . This year Kenwal succeeded to the kingdom of the West-
Saxons, and held it one and thirty winters. This Kenwal ordered
the old church at Winchester to be built in the name of St.
Peter. He was the son of Cynegils.

A.D. 644 . This year died at Rochester, on the tenth of October,
Paulinus, who was first Archbishop at York, and afterwards at
Rochester. He was bishop nineteen winters, two months, and one
and twenty days. This year the son of Oswy's uncle (Oswin), the
son of Osric, assumed the government of Deira, and reigned seven

A.D. 645 . This year King Kenwal was driven from his dominion by King Penda.

A.D. 646 . This year King Kenwal was baptized.

A.D. 648 . This year Kenwal gave his relation Cuthred three
thousand hides of land by Ashdown. Cuthred was the son of
Cwichelm, Cwichelm of Cynegils.

A.D. 650 . This year Egelbert, from Gaul, after Birinus the
Romish bishop, obtained the bishopric of the West-Saxons.

(A.D. 650 . This year Birinus the bishop died, and Agilbert the
Frenchman was ordained.)

A.D. 651 . This year King Oswin was slain, on the twentieth day
of August; and within twelve nights afterwards died Bishop Aidan,
on the thirty-first of August.

A.D. 652 . This year Kenwal fought at Bradford by the Avon.

A.D. 653 . This year, the Middle-Angles under alderman Peada
received the right belief.

A.D. 654 . This year King Anna was slain, and Botolph began to
build that minster at Icanhoe. This year also died Archbishop
Honorius, on the thirtieth of September.

A.D. 655 . This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty
royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them
was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The
Mercians after this became Christians. From the beginning of the
world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty
winters, when Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of
the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy,
brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster
to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they
did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted; because there is a
well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and
wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk,
whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and
him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and
rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned
no while; for he was betrayed by his own queen, in Easter-tide.
This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to
Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March.

A.D. 656 . This year was Peada slain; and Wulfhere, son of
Penda, succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians. In his time waxed
the abbey of Medhamsted very rich, which his brother had begun.
The king loved it much, for the love of his brother Peada, and for
the love of his wed-brother Oswy, and for the love of Saxulf the
abbot. He said, therefore, that he would dignify and honour it
by the counsel of his brothers, Ethelred and Merwal; and by the
counsel of his sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha; and by the
counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit; and by the
counsel of all his peers, learned and lewd, that in his kingdom
were. And he so did. Then sent the king after the abbot, that
he should immediately come to him. And he so did. Then said the
king to the abbot: "Beloved Saxulf, I have sent after thee for
the good of my soul; and I will plainly tell thee for why. My
brother Peada and my beloved friend Oswy began a minster, for the
love of Christ and St. Peter: but my brother, as Christ willed,
is departed from this life; I will therefore intreat thee,
beloved friend, that they earnestly proceed on their work; and I
will find thee thereto gold and silver, land and possessions, and
all that thereto behoveth." Then went the abbot home, and began
to work. So he sped, as Christ permitted him; so that in a few
years was that minster ready. Then, when the king heard say
that, he was very glad; and bade men send through all the nation,
after all his thanes; after the archbishop, and after bishops:
and after his earls; and after all those that loved God; that
they should come to him. And he fixed the day when men should
hallow the minster. And when they were hallowing the minster,
there was the king, Wulfere, and his brother Ethelred, and his
sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha. And the minster was hallowed
by Archbishop Deusdedit of Canterbury; and the Bishop of
Rochester, Ithamar; and the Bishop of London, who was called
Wina; and the Bishop of the Mercians, whose name was Jeruman;
and Bishop Tuda. And there was Wilfrid, priest, that after was
bishop; and there were all his thanes that were in his kingdom.
When the minster was hallowed, in the name of St. Peter, and St.
Paul, and St. Andrew, then stood up the king before all his
thanes, and said with a loud voice: "Thanks be to the high
almighty God for this worship that here is done; and I will this
day glorify Christ and St. Peter, and I will that you all confirm
my words. -- I Wulfere give to-day to St. Peter, and the Abbot
Saxulf, and the monks of the minster, these lands, and these
waters, and meres, and fens, and weirs, and all the lands that
thereabout lye, that are of my kingdom, freely, so that no man
have there any ingress, but the abbot and the monks. This is the
gift. From Medhamsted to Northborough; and so to the place that
is called Foleys; and so all the fen, right to Ashdike; and from
Ashdike to the place called Fethermouth; and so in a right line
ten miles long to Ugdike; and so to Ragwell; and from Ragwell
five miles to the main river that goeth to Elm and to Wisbeach;
and so about three miles to Trokenholt; and from Trokenholt right
through all the fen to Derworth; that is twenty miles long; and
so to Great Cross; and from Great Cross through a clear water
called Bradney; and thence six miles to Paxlade; and so forth
through all the meres and fens that lye toward Huntingdon-port;
and the meres and lakes Shelfermere and Wittlesey mere, and all
the others that thereabout lye; with land and with houses that
are on the east side of Shelfermere; thence all the fens to
Medhamsted; from Medhamsted all to Welmsford; from Welmsford
to Clive; thence to Easton; from Easton to Stamford; from Stamford
as the water runneth to the aforesaid Northborough." -- These are
the lands and the fens that the king gave unto St. Peter's
minster. -- Then quoth the king: "It is little -- this gift --
but I will that they hold it so royally and so freely, that there
be taken there from neither gild nor gable, but for the monks
alone. Thus I will free this minster; that it be not subject
except to Rome alone; and hither I will that we seek St. Peter,
all that to Rome cannot go." During these words the abbot
desired that he would gant him his request. And the king granted
it. "I have here (said he) some good monks that would lead their
life in retirement, if they wist where. Now here is an island,
that is called Ankerig; and I will request, that we may there
build a minster to the honour of St. Mary; that they may dwell
there who will lead their lives in peace and tranquillity." Then
answered the king, and quoth thus: "Beloved Saxulf, not that only
which thou desirest, but all things that I know thou desirest in
our Lord's behalf, so I approve, and grant. And I bid thee,
brother Ethelred, and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, for
the release of your souls, that you be witnesses, and that you
subscribe it with your fingers. And I pray all that come after
me, be they my sons, be they my brethren, or kings that come
after me, that our gift may stand; as they would be partakers of
the life everlasting, and as they would avoid everlasting
punishment. Whoso lesseneth our gift, or the gift of other good
men, may the heavenly porter lessen him in the kingdom of heaven;
and whoso advanceth it, may the heavenly porter advance him in
the kingdom of heaven." These are the witnesses that were there,
and that subscribed it with their fingers on the cross of Christ,
and confirmed it with their tongues. That was, first the king,
Wulfere, who confirmed it first with his word, and afterwards
wrote with his finger on the cross of Christ, saying thus: "I
Wulfere, king, in the presence of kings, and of earls, and of
captains, and of thanes, the witnesses of my gift, before the
Archbishop Deus-dedit, I confirm it with the cross of Christ."
(+) -- "And I Oswy, king of the Northumbrians, the friend of this
minster, and oϊ the Abbot Saxulf, commend it with the cross of
Christ." (+) -- "And I Sighere, king, ratify it with the cross of
Christ." (+) -- "And I Sibbi, king, subscribe it with the cross
of Christ." (+) -- "And I Ethelred, the king's brother, granted
the same with the cross of Christ." (+) -- "And we, the king's
sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, approve it." -- "And I
Archbishop of Canterbury, Deus-dedit, ratify it." -- Then
confirmed it all the others that were there with the cross of
Christ (+): namely, Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester; Wina, Bishop of
London; Jeruman, Bishop of the Mercians; and Tuda, bishop; and
Wilfrid, priest, who was afterwards bishop; and Eoppa, priest,
whom the king, Wulfere, sent to preach christianity in the Isle
of Wight; and Saxulf, abbot; and Immine, alderman, and Edbert,
alderman, and Herefrith, alderman, and Wilbert, alderman, and
Abo, alderman; Ethelbald, Brord, Wilbert, Elmund, Frethegis.
These, and many others that were there, the king's most loyal
subjects, confirmed it all. This charter was written after our
Lord's Nativity 664 -- the seventh year of King Wulfere -- the
ninth year of Archbishop Deus-dedir. Then they laid God's curse,
and the curse of all saints, and all christian folks, on
whosoever undid anything that there was done. "So be it," saith
all. "Amen." -- When this thing was done, then sent the king to
Rome to the Pope Vitalianus that then was, and desired, that he
would ratify with his writ and with his blessing, all this
aforesaid thing. And the pope then sent his writ, thus saying:
"I Vitalianus, pope, grant thee, King Wulfere, and Deus-dedit,
archbishop, and Abbot Saxulf, all the things that you desire.
And I forbid, that any king, or any man, have any ingress, but
the abbot alone; nor shall he be Subject to any man, except the
Pope of Rome and the Archbishop of Canterbury. If any one
breaketh anything of this, St. Peter with his sword destroy him.
Whosoever holdeth it, St. Peter with heaven's key undo him the
kingdom of heaven." -- Thus was the minster of Medhamsted
begun, that was afterwards called Peter-borough. Afterwards came
another archbishop to Canterbury, who was called Theodorus; a
very good man and wise; and held his synod with his bishops and
with his clerk. There was Wilfrid, bishop of the Mercians,
deprived of his bishopric; and Saxulf, abbot, was there chosen
bishop; and Cuthbald, monk of the same minster, was chosen abbot.
This synod was holden after our Lord's Nativity six hundred and
seventy-three winters.

A.D. 658 . This year Kenwal fought with the Welsh at Pen, and
pursued them to the Parret. This battle was fought after his
return from East-Anglia, where he was three years in exile.
Penda had driven him thither and deprived him of his kingdom,
because he had discarded his sister.

A.D. 660 . This year Bishop Egelbert departed from Kenwal; and
Wina held the bishopric three years. And Egbert accepted the
bishopric of Paris, in Gaul, by the Seine.

A.D. 661 . This year, at Easter, Kenwal fought at Pontesbury; and
Wulfere, the son of Penda, pursued him as far as Ashdown.
Cuthred, the son of Cwichelm, and King Kenbert, died in one year.
Into the Isle of Wight also Wulfere, the son of Penda,
penetrated, and transferred the inhabitants to Ethelwald, king of
the South-Saxons, because Wulfere adopted him in baptism. And
Eoppa, a mass-priest, by command of Wilfrid and King Wulfere, was
the first of men who brought baptism to the people of the Isle of

A.D. 664 . This year the sun was eclipsed, on the eleventh of
May; and Erkenbert, King of Kent, having died, Egbert his son
succeeded to the kingdom. Colman with his companions this year
returned to his own country. This same year there was a great
plague in the island Britain, in which died Bishop Tuda, who was
buried at Wayleigh -- Chad and Wilferth were consecrated -- And
Archbishop Deus-dedit died.

A.D. 667 . This year Oswy and Egbert sent Wighard, a priest, to
Rome, that he might be consecrated there Archbishop of
Canterbury; but he died as soon as he came thither.

(A.D. 667 . This year Wighard went to Rome, even as King Oswy,
and Egbert had sent him.)

A.D. 668 . This year Theodore was consecrated archbishop, and
sent into Britain.

A.D. 669 . This year King Egbert gave to Bass, a mass-priest,
Reculver -- to build a minster upon.

A.D. 670 . This year died Oswy, King of Northumberland, on the
fifteenth day before the calends of March; and Egferth his son
reigned after him. Lothere, the nephew of Bishop Egelbert,
succeeded to the bishopric over the land of the West-Saxons, and
held it seven years. He was consecrated by Archbishop Theodore.
Oswy was the son of Ethelfrith, Ethelfrith of Ethelric, Ethelric
of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.

A.D. 671 . This year happened that great destruction among the

A.D. 672 . This year died King Cenwal; and Sexburga his queen
held the government one year after him.

A.D. 673 . This year died Egbert, King of Kent; and the same year
there was a synod at Hertford; and St. Etheldritha began that
monastery at Ely.

A.D. 674 . This year Escwin succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex.
He was the son of Cenfus, Cenfus of Cenferth, Cenferth of
Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, Ceolwulf of Cynric, Cynric of

A.D. 675 . This year Wulfere, the son of Penda, and Escwin, the
son of Cenfus, fought at Bedwin. The same year died Wulfere, and
Ethelred succeeded to the government. In his time sent he to
Rome Bishop Wilfrid to the pope that then was, called Agatho, and
told him by word and by letter, how his brothers Peada and
Wulfere, and the Abbot Saxulf, had wrought a minster, called
Medhamsted; and that they had freed it, against king and against
bishop, from every service; and he besought him that he would
confirm it with his writ and with his blessing. And the pope
sent then his writ to England, thus saying: "I Agatho, Pope of
Rome, greet well the worthy Ethelred, king of the Mercians, and
the Archbishop Theodorus of Canterbury, and Saxulf, the bishop of
the Mercians, who before was abbot, and all the abbots that are
in England; God's greeting and my blessing. I have heard the
petition of King Ethelred, and of the Archbishop Theodorus, and
of the Bishop Saxulf, and of the Abbot Cuthbald; and I will it,
that it in all wise be as you have spoken it. And I ordain, in
behalf of God, and of St. Peter, and of all saints, and of every
hooded head, that neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor any man
whatever, have any claim, or gable, or gild, or levy, or take any
service of any kind, from the abbey of Medhamsted. I command
also, that no shire-bishop be so bold as to hold an ordination or
consecration within this abbacy, except the abbot intreat him,
nor have there any claim to proxies, or synodals, or anything
whatever of any kind. And I will, that the abbot be holden for
legate of Rome over all that island; and whatever abbot is there
chosen by the monks that he be consecrated by the Archbishop of
Canterbury. I will and decree, that, whatever man may have made
a vow to go to Rome, and cannot perform it, either from
infirmity, or for his lord's need, or from poverty, or from any
other necessity of any kind whatever, whereby he cannot come
thither, be he of England, or of whatever other island he be, he
may come to that minster of Medhamsted, and have the same
forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbot, and of the
monks, that he should have if he went to Rome. Now bid I thee,
brother Theodorus, that thou let it be proclaimed through all
England, that a synod be gathered, and this writ be read and
observed. Also I tell thee, Bishop Saxulf, that, as thou
desirest it, that the minster be free, so I forbid thee, and all
the bishops that after thee come, from Christ and from all his
saints, that ye have no demand from that minster, except so much
as the abbot will. Now will I say in a word, that, whoso holdeth
this writ and this decree, then be he ever dwelling with God
Almighty in the kingdom of heaven. And whoso breaketh it, then
be he excommunicated, and thrust down with Judas, and with all
the devils in hell, except he come to repentance. Amen!" This
writ sent the Pope Agatho, and a hundred and twenty-five bishops,
by Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, to England. This was done after
our Lord's Nativity 680, the sixth year of King Ethelred. Then
the king commanded the Archbishop Theodorus, that he should
appoint a general Wittenmoot at the place called Hatfield. When
they were there collected, then he allowed the letter to be read
that the pope sent thither; and all ratified and confirmed it.
Then said the king: "All things that my brother Peada, and my
brother Wulfere, and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, gave
and granted to St. Peter and the abbot, these I will may stand;
and I will in my day increase it, for their souls and for my
soul. Now give I St. Peter to-day into his minster, Medhamsted,
these lands, and all that thereto lyeth; that is, Bredon,
Repings, Cadney, Swineshead, Hanbury, Lodeshall, Scuffanhall,
Cosford, Stratford, Wattleburn, Lushgard, Ethelhun-island,
Bardney. These lands I give St. Peter just as freely as I
possessed them myself; and so, that none of my successors take
anything therefrom. Whoso doeth it, have he the curse of the
Pope of Rome, and the curse of all bishops, and of all those that
are witnesses here. And this I confirm with the token of
Christ." (+) "I Theodorus, Archbishop of Canterbury, am witness
to this charter of Medhamsted; and I ratify it with my hand, and
I excommunicate all that break anything thereof; and I bless all
that hold it." (+) "I Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, am witness to
this charter; and I ratify this same curse." (+) "I Saxulf, who
was first abbot, and now am bishop, I give my curse, and that of
all my successors, to those who break this." -- "I Ostritha,
Ethelred's queen, confirm it." -- "I Adrian, legate, ratify it."
-- "I Putta, Bishop of Rochester, subscribe it." -- "I Waldhere,
Bishop of London, confirm it." -- "I Cuthbald, abbot, ratify it;
so that, whoso breaketh it, have he the cursing of all bishops
and of all christian folk. Amen."

A.D. 676 . This year, in which Hedda succeeded to his bishopric,
Escwin died; and Centwin obtained the government of the West-
Saxons. Centwin was the son of Cynegils, Cynegils of Ceolwulf.
Ethelred, king of the Mercians, in the meantime, overran the land
of Kent.

A.D. 678 . This year appeared the comet-star in August, and shone
every morning, during three months, like a sunbeam. Bishop
Wilfrid being driven from his bishopric by King Everth, two
bishops were consecrated in his stead, Bosa over the Deirians,
and Eata over the Bernicians. About the same time also Eadhed
was consecrated bishop over the people of Lindsey, being the
first in that division.

A.D. 679 . This year Elwin was slain, by the river Trent, on the
spot where Everth and Ethelred fought. This year also died St.
Etheldritha; and the monastery of Coldingiham was destroyed by
fire from heaven.

A.D. 680 . This year Archbishop Theodore appointed a synod at
Hatfield; because he was desirous of rectifying the belief of
Christ; and the same year died Hilda, Abbess of Whitby.

A.D. 681 . This year Trumbert was consecrated Bishop of Hexham,
and Trumwin bishop of the Picts; for they were at that time
subject to this country. This year also Centwin pursued the
Britons to the sea.

A.D. 684 . This year Everth sent an army against the Scots, under
the command of his alderman, Bright, who lamentably plundered and
burned the churches of God.

A.D. 685 . This year King Everth commanded Cuthbert to be
consecrated a bishop; and Archbishop Theodore, on the first day
of Easter, consecrated him at York Bishop of Hexham; for Trumbert
had been deprived of that see. The same year Everth was slain by
the north sea, and a large army with him, on the thirteenth day
before the calends of June. He continued king fifteen winters;
and his brother Elfrith succeeded him in the government. Everth
was the son of Oswy. Oswy of Ethelferth, Ethelferth of Ethelric,
Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. About this time Ceadwall began to
struggle for a kingdom. Ceadwall was the son of Kenbert, Kenbert
of Chad, Chad of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric,
Cynric of Cerdic. Mull, who was afterwards consigned to the
flames in Kent, was the brother of Ceadwall. The same year died
Lothhere, King of Kent; and John was consecrated Bishop of
Hexham, where he remained till Wilferth was restored, when John
was translated to York on the death of Bishop Bosa. Wilferth his
priest was afterwards consecrated Bishop of York, and John
retired to his monastery (21) in the woods of Delta. This year
there was in Britain a bloody rain, and milk and butter were
turned to blood.

(A.D. 685 . And in this same year Cuthbert was consecrated
Bishop of Hexham by Archbishop Theodore at York, because Bishop
Tumbert had been driven from the bishopric.)

A.D. 686 . This year Ceadwall and his brother Mull spread
devastation in Kent and the Isle of Wight. This same Ceadwall
gave to St. Peter's minster, at Medhamsted, Hook; which is
situated in an island called Egborough. Egbald at this time was
abbot, who was the third after Saxulf; and Theodore was
archbishop in Kent.

A.D. 687 . This year was Mull consigned to the flames in Kent,
and twelve other men with him; after which, in the same year,
Ceadwall overran the kingdom of Kent.

A.D. 688 . This year Ceadwall went to Rome, and received baptism
at the hands of Sergius the pope, who gave him the name of Peter;
but in the course of seven nights afterwards, on the twelfth day
before the calends of May, he died in his crisom-cloths, and was
buried in the church of St. Peter. To him succeeded Ina in the
kingdom of Wessex, and reigned thirty-seven winters. He founded
the monastery of Glastonbury; after which he went to Rome, and
continued there to the end of his life. Ina was the son of
Cenred, Cenred of Ceolwald; Ceolwald was the brother of Cynegils;
and both were the sons of Cuthwin, who was the son of Ceawlin;
Ceawlin was the son of Cynric, and Cynric of Cerdic.

(A.D. 688 . This year King Caedwalla went to Rome, and received
baptism of Pope Sergius, and he gave him the name of Peter, and
in about seven days afterwards, on the twelfth before the kalends
of May, while he was yet in his baptismal garments, he died: and
he was buried in St. Peter's church. And Ina succeeded to the
kingdom of the West-Saxons after him, and he reigned twenty-seven

A.D. 690 . This year Archbishop Theodore, who had been bishop
twenty-two winters, departed this life, and was buried
within the city of Canterbury. Bertwald, who before this was
abbot of Reculver, on the calends of July succeeded him in the
see; which was ere this filled by Romish bishops, but henceforth
with English. Then were there two kings in Kent, Wihtred and

A.D. 693 . This year was Bertwald consecrated archbishop by
Godwin, bishop of the Gauls, on the fifth day before the nones of
July; about which time died Gifmund, who was Bishop of Rochester;
and Archbishop Bertwald consecrated Tobias in his stead. This
year also Dryhtelm retired from the world.

A.D. 694 . This year the people of Kent covenanted with Ina, and
gave him 30,000 pounds in friendship, because they had burned his
brother Mull. Wihtred, who succeeded to the kingdom of Kent, and
held it thirty-three winters, was the son of Egbert, Egbert of
Erkenbert, Erkenbert of Eadbald, Eadbald of Ethelbert. And as
soon as he was king, he ordained a great council to meet in the
place that is called Bapchild; in which presided Wihtred, King of
Kent, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Brihtwald, and Bishop Tobias
of Rochester; and with him were collected abbots and abbesses,
and many wise men, all to consult about the advantage of God's
churches that are in Kent. Now began the king to speak, and
said, "I will that all the minsters and the churches, that were
given and bequeathed to the worship of God in the days of
believing kings, my predecessors, and in the days of my relations
of King Ethelbert and of those that followed him -- shall so
remain to the worship of God, and stand fast for evermore. For I
Wihtred, earthly king, urged on by the heavenly king, and with
the spirit of righteousness annealed, have of our progenitors
learned this, that no layman should have any right to possess
himself of any church or of any of the things that belong to the
church. And, therefore, strongly and truly, we set and decree,
and in the name of Almighty God, and of all saints, we forbid all
our succeeding kings, and aldermen, and all lawmen, ever, any
lordship over churches, and over all their appurtenances, which I
or my elders in old days have given for a perpetual inheritance
to the glory of Christ and our Lady St. Mary, and the holy
apostles. And look! when it happeneth, that bishop, or abbot,
or abbess, depart from this life, be it told the archbishop, and
with his counsel and injunction be chosen such as be worthy. And
the life of him, that shall be chosen to so holy a thing, let the
archbishop examine, and his cleanness; and in no wise be chosen
any one, or to so holy a thing consecrated, without the
archbishop's counsel. Kings shall appoint earls, and aldermen,
sheriffs, and judges; but the archbishop shall consult and
provide for God's flock: bishops, and abbots, and abbesses, and
priests, and deacons, he shall choose and appoint; and also
sanctify and confirm with good precepts and example, lest that
any of God's flock go astray and perish --"

A.D. 697 . This year the Southumbrians slew Ostritha, the queen
of Ethelred, the sister of Everth.

A.D. 699 . This year the Picts slew Alderman Burt.

A.D. 702 . This year Kenred assumed the government of the

A.D. 703 . This year died Bishop Hedda, having held the see of
Winchester twenty-seven winters.

A.D. 704 . This year Ethelred, the son of Penda, King of Mercia,
entered into a monastic life, having reigned twenty-nine winters;
and Cenred succeeded to the government.

A.D. 705 . This year died Ealdferth, king of the Northumbrians,
on the nineteenth day before the calends of January, at
Driffield; and was succeeded by his son Osred. Bishop Saxulf
also died the same year.

A.D. 709 . This year died Aldhelm, who was bishop by Westwood.
The land of the West-Saxons was divided into two bishoprics in
the first days of Bishop Daniel; who held one whilst Aldhelm held
the other. Before this it was only one. Forthere succeeded to
Aldhelm; and Ceolred succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia. And
Cenred went to Rome; and Offa with him. And Cenred was there to
the end of his life. The same year died Bishop Wilferth, at
Oundle, but his body was carried to Ripon. He was the bishop
whom King Everth compelled to go to Rome.

A.D. 710 . This year Acca, priest of Wilferth, succeeded to the
bishopric that Wilferth ere held; and Alderman Bertfrith fought
with the Picts between Heugh and Carau. Ina also, and Nun his
relative, fought with Grant, king of the Welsh; and the same year
Hibbald was slain.

A.D. 714 . This year died Guthlac the holy, and King Pepin.

A.D. 715 . This year Ina and Ceolred fought at Wanborough;
and King Dagobert departed this life.

A.D. 716 . This year Osred, king of the Northumbrians, was slain
near the southern borders. He reigned eleven winters after
Ealdferth. Cenred then succeeded to the government, and held it
two years; then Osric, who held it eleven years. This same year
died Ceolred, king of the Mercians. His body lies at Lichfield;
but that of Ethelred, the son of Penda, at Bardney. Ethelbald
then succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia, and held it one and
forty winters. Ethelbald was the son of Alwy, Alwy of Eawa, Eawa
of Webba, whose genealogy is already written. The venerable
Egbert about this time converted the monks of Iona to the right
faith, in the regulation of Easter, and the ecclesiastical

A.D. 718 . This year died Ingild, the brother of Ina. Cwenburga
and Cuthburga were their sisters. Cuthburga reared the monastery
of Wimburn; and, though given in marriage to Ealdferth, King of
Northumberland, they parted during their lives.

A.D. 721 . This year Bishop Daniel went to Rome; and the same
year Ina slew Cynewulf, the etheling. This year also died the
holy Bishop John; who was bishop thirty-three years, and eight
months, and thirteen days. His body now resteth at Beverley.

A.D. 722 . This year Queen Ethelburga destroyed Taunton, which
Ina had formerly built; Ealdbert wandered a wretched exile in
Surrey and Sussex; and Ina fought with the South-Saxons.

A.D. 725 . This year died Wihtred, King of Kent, on the ninth day
before the calends of May, after a reign of thirty-two winters.
His pedigree is above; and he was succeeded by Eadbert. Ina this
year also fought with the South-Saxons, and slew Ealdbert, the
etheling, whom he had before driven into exile.

A.D. 727 . This year died Tobias, Bishop of Rochester: and
Archbishop Bertwald consecrated Aldulf bishop in his stead.

A.D. 728 . This year Ina went to Rome, and there gave up the
ghost. He was succeeded in the kingdom of Wessex by Ethelhard
his relative, who held it fourteen years; but he fought this same
year with Oswald the etheling. Oswald was the son of Ethelbald,
Ethelbald of Cynebald, Cynebald of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin.

A.D. 729 . This year appeared the comet-star, and St. Egbert died
in Iona. This year also died the etheling Oswald; and Osric was
slain, who was eleven winters king of Northumberland; to which
kingdom Ceolwulf succeeded, and held it eight years. The said
Ceolwulf was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of
Leodwald, Leodwald of Egwald, Egwald of Ealdhelm, Ealdhelm of
Occa, Occa of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. Archbishop Bertwald died this
year on the ides of January. He was bishop thirty-seven winters,
and six months, and fourteen days. The same year Tatwine, who
was before a priest at Bredon in Mercia, was consecrated
archbishop by Daniel Bishop of Winchester, Ingwald Bishop of
London, Aldwin Bishop of Lichfield, and Aldulf Bishop of
Rochester, on the tenth day of June. He enjoyed the
archbishopric about three years.

(A.D. 729 . And the same year Osric died; he was king eleven
years; then Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom, and held it eight

A.D. 733 . This year Ethelbald took Somerton; the sun was
eclipsed; and Acca was driven from his bishopric.

A.D. 734 . This year was the moon as if covered with blood; and
Archbishop Tatwine and Bede departed this life; and Egbert was
consecrated bishop.

A.D. 735 . This year Bishop Egbert received the pall at Rome.

A.D. 736 . This year Archbishop Nothelm received the pall from
the bishop of the Romans.

A.D. 737 . This year Bishop Forthere and Queen Frithogitha went
to Rome; and King Ceolwulf received the clerical tonsure, giving
his kingdom to Edbert, his uncle's son: who reigned one and
twenty winters. Bishop Ethelwold and Acca died this year, and
Cynewulf was consecrated bishop. The same year also Ethelbald
ravaged the land of the Northumbrians.

A.D. 738 . This year Eadbery, the son of Eata the son of
Leodwald, succeeded to the Northumbrian kingdom, and held it one
and twenty winters. Archbishop Egbert, the son of Eata, was his
brother. They both rest under one porch in the city of York.

A.D. 740 . This year died King Ethelhard; and Cuthred, his
relative, succeeded to the West-Saxon kingdom, which he held
fourteen winters, during which time he fought many hard battles
with Ethelbald, king of the Mercians. On the death of Archbishop
Nothelm, Cuthbert was consecrated archbishop, and Dunn, Bishop of
Rochester. This year York was on fire.

A.D. 742 . This year there was a large synod assembled at
Cliff's-Hoo; and there was Ethelbald, king of Mercia, with
Archbishop Cuthbert, and many other wise men.

A.D. 743 . This year Ethelbald, king of Mercia, and Cuthred, king
of the West-Saxons, fought with the Welsh.

A.D. 744 . This year Daniel resigned the see of Winchester; to
which Hunferth was promoted. The stars went swiftly shooting;
and Wilferth the younger, who had been thirty winters Bishop of
York, died on the third day before the calends of May.

A.D. 745 . This year died Daniel. Forty-three winters had then
elapsed since he received the episcopal function.

A.D. 746 . This year was King Selred slain.

A.D. 748 . This year was slain Cynric, etheling of the West-
Saxons; Edbert, King of Kent, died; and Ethelbert, son of King
Wihtred, succeeded to the kingdom.

A.D. 750 . This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, fought
with the proud chief Ethelhun.

A.D. 752. This year, the twelfth of his reign, Cuthred, king of
the West-Saxons, fought at Burford (27) with Ethelbald, king of
the Mercians, and put him to flight.

A.D. 753. This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, fought
against the Welsh.

A.D. 754. This year died Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons; and
Sebright, his relative, succeeded to the kingdom, which he held
one year; Cyneard succeeded Humferth in the see of Winchester;
and Canterbury was this year on fire.

A.D. 755. This year Cynewulf, with the consent of the West-Saxon
council, deprived Sebright, his relative, for unrighteous deeds,
of his kingdom, except Hampshire; which he retained, until he
slew the alderman who remained the longest with him. Then
Cynewulf drove him to the forest of Andred, where he remained,
until a swain stabbed him at Privett, and revenged the alderman,
Cumbra. The same Cynewulf fought many hard battles with the
Welsh; and, about one and thirty winters after he had the
kingdom, he was desirous of expelling a prince called Cyneard,
who was the brother of Sebright. But he having understood that
the king was gone, thinly attended, on a visit to a lady at
Merton, (28) rode after him, and beset him therein; surrounding
the town without, ere the attendants of the king were aware of
him. When the king found this, he went out of doors, and
defended himself with courage; till, having looked on the
etheling, he rushed out upon him, and wounded him severely. Then
were they all fighting against the king, until they had slain
him. As soon as the king's thanes in the lady's bower heard the
tumult, they ran to the spot, whoever was then ready. The
etheling immediately offered them life and rewards; which none of
them would accept, but continued fighting together against him,
till they all lay dead, except one British hostage, and he was
severely wounded. When the king's thanes that were behind heard
in the morning that the king was slain, they rode to the spot,
Osric his alderman, and Wiverth his thane, and the men that he
had left behind; and they met the etheling at the town, where the
king lay slain. The gates, however, were locked against them,
which they attempted to force; but he promised them their own
choice of money and land, if they would grant him the kingdom;
reminding them, that their relatives were already with him, who
would never desert him. To which they answered, that no relative
could be dearer to them than their lord, and that they would
never follow his murderer. Then they besought their relatives to
depart from him, safe and sound. They replied, that the same
request was made to their comrades that were formerly with the
king; "And we are as regardless of the result," they rejoined,
"as our comrades who with the king were slain." Then they
continued fighting at the gates, till they rushed in, and slew
the etheling and all the men that were with him; except one, who
was the godson of the alderman, and whose life he spared, though
he was often wounded. This same Cynewulf reigned one and thirty
winters. His body lies at Winchester, and that of the etheling
at Axminster. Their paternal pedigree goeth in a direct line to
Cerdic. The same year Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, was slain
at Seckington; and his body lies at Repton. He reigned one and
forty years; and Bernred then succeeded to the kingdom, which he
held but a little while, and unprosperously; for King Offa the
same year put him to flight, and assumed the government; which he
held nine and thirty winters. His son Everth held it a hundred
and forty days. Offa was the son of Thingferth, Thingferth of
Enwulf, Enwulf of Osmod, Osmod of Eawa, Eawa of Webba, Webba of
Creoda, Creoda of Cenwald, Cenwald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel,
Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of Offa, Offa of
Wermund, Wermund of Witley, Witley of Woden.

((A.D. 755. This year Cynewulf deprived King Sigebert of his
kingdom; and Sigebert's brother, Cynehard by name, slew Cynewulf
at Merton; and he reigned thirty-one years. And in the same year
Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, was slain at Repton. And Offa
succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians, Bernred being driven

A.D. 757. This year Eadbert, king of the Northumbrians, received
the tonsure, and his son Osulf the kingdom; which he held one
year. Him his own domestics slew on the ninth day before the
kalends of August.

A.D. 758. This year died Archbishop Cuthbert. He held the
archbishopric eighteen years.

A.D. 759. This year Bregowin was invested archbishop at
Michaelmas, and continued four years. Mull Ethelwold this year
succeeded to the Northumbrian kingdom, held it six winters, and
then resigned it.

A.D. 760. This year died Ethelbert, King of Kent, who was the
son of King Wihtred, and also of Ceolwulf.

A.D. 761. This year was the severe winter; and Mull, king of the
Northumbrians, slew Oswin at Edwin's-Cliff, on the eighth day
before the ides of August.

A.D. 762. This year died Archbishop Bregowin.

A.D. 763. This year Eanbert was invested archbishop, on the
fortieth day over mid-winter; and Frithwald, Bishop of Whitern,
died on the nones of May. He was consecrated at York, on the
eighteenth day before the calends of September, in the sixth year
of the reign of Ceolwulf, and was bishop nine and twenty winters.
Then was Petwin consecrated Bishop of Whitern at Adlingfleet, on
the sixteenth day before the calends of August.

A.D. 764. This year Archbishop Eanbert received the pall.

A.D. 765. This year Alred succeeded to the kingdom of the
Northumbrians, and reigned eight winters.

A.D. 766. This year died Archbishop Egbert at York, on the
thirteenth day before the calends of December, who was bishop
thirty-six winters; and Frithbert at Hexham, who was bishop there
thirty-four winters. Ethelbert was consecrated to York, and
Elmund to Hexham.

A.D. 768. This year died King Eadbert, the son of Eata, on the
fourteenth day before the calends of September.

A.D. 772. This year died Bishop Mildred.

A.D. 774. This year the Northumbrians banished their king,
Alred, from York at Easter-tide; and chose Ethelred, the son of
Mull, for their lord, who reigned four winters. This year also
appeared in the heavens a red crucifix, after sunset; the
Mercians and the men of Kent fought at Otford; and wonderful
serpents were seen in the land of the South-Saxons.

A.D. 775. This year Cynewulf and Offa fought near Bensington,
and Offa took possession of the town. In the days of this king,
Offa, there was an abbot at Medhamsted, called Beonna; who, with
the consent of all the monks of the minster, let to farm, to
Alderman Cuthbert, ten copyhold lands at Swineshead, with leasow
and with meadow, and with all the appurtenances; provided that
the said Cuthbert gave the said abbot fifty pounds therefore, and
each year entertainment for one night, or thirty shillings in
money; (29) provided also, that after his decease the said lands
should revert to the monastery. The king, Offa, and King Everth,
and Archbishop Hibbert, and Bishop Ceolwulf, and Bishop Inwona,
and Abbot Beonna, and many other bishops, and abbots, and rich
men, were witnesses to this. In the days of this same Offa was
an alderman, of the name of Brorda, who requested the king for
his sake to free his own monastery, called Woking, because he
would give it to Medhamsted and St. Peter, and the abbot that
then was, whose name was Pusa. Pusa succeeded Beonna; and the
king loved him much. And the king freed the monastery of Woking,
against king, against bishop, against earl, and against all men'
so that no man should have any claim there, except St. Peter and
the abbot. This was done at the king's town called

A.D. 776. This year died Bishop Petwin, on the thirteenth day
before the calends of October, having been bishop fourteen
winters. The same year Ethelbert was consecrated Bishop of
Whitern, at York, on the seventeenth day before the calends of

A.D. 778. This year Ethelbald and Herbert slew three high-
sheriffs -- Eldulf, the son of Bosa, at Coniscliff; Cynewulf and
Eggo at Helathyrn -- on the eleventh day before the calends of
April. Then Elwald, having banished Ethelred from his territory,
seized on his kingdom, and reigned ten winters.

A.D. 780. This year a battle was fought between the Old-Saxons
and the Franks; and the high-sheriffs of Northumbria committed to
the flames Alderman Bern at Silton, on the ninth day before the
calends of January. The same year Archbishop Ethelbert died at
York, and Eanbald was consecrated in his stead; Bishop Cynewulf
retired to Holy-island; Elmund, Bishop of Hexham, died on the
seventh day before the ides of September, and Tilbert was
consecrated in his stead, on the sixth day before the nones of
October; Hibbald was consecrated Bishop of Holy-island at
Sockbury; and King Elwald sent to Rome for a pall in behoof of
Archbishop Eanbald.

A.D. 782. This year died Werburga, Queen of Ceolred, and Bishop
Cynewulf, in Holy-island; and the same year there was a synod at

A.D. 784. This year Cyneard slew King Cynewulf, and was slain
himself, and eighty-four men with him. Then Bertric undertook
the government of the West-Saxons, and reigned sixteen years.
His body is deposited at Wareham; and his pedigree goeth in a
direct line to Cerdic. At this time reigned Elmund king in Kent,
the father of Egbert; and Egbert was the father of Athulf.

A.D. 785. This year died Bothwin, Abbot of Ripon, and a
litigious synod was holden at Chalk-hythe; Archbishop Eanbert
resigned some part of his bishopric, Hibbert was appointed bishop
by King Offa, and Everth was consecrated king. In the meantime
legates were sent from Rome to England by Pope Adrian, to renew
the blessings of faith and peace which St. Gregory sent us by the
mission of Bishop Augustine, and they were received with every
mark of honour and respect.

A.D. 787. This year King Bertric took Edburga the daughter of
Offa to wife. And in his days came first three ships of the
Northmen from the land of robbers. The reve (30) then rode
thereto, and would drive them to the king's town; for he knew not
what they were; and there was he slain. These were the first
ships of the Danish men that sought the land of the English

A.D. 788. This year there was a synod assembled at Fingall in
Northumberland, on the fourth day before the nones of September;
and Abbot Albert departed this life.

A.D. 789. This year Elwald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain
by Siga, on the eleventh day before the calends of October; and a
heavenly light was often seen on the spot where he was slain. He
was buried in the church of Hexham; and Osred, the son of Alred,
who was his nephew, succeeded him in the government. This ),ear
there was a synod assembled at Acley.

A.D. 790. This year Archbishop Eanbert died, and Abbot Ethelherd
was chosen archbishop the same year. Osred, king of the
Northumbrians, was betrayed and banished from his kingdom, and
Ethelred, the son of Ethelwald, succeeded him.

A.D. 791. This year Baldulf was consecrated Bishop of Whitern,
on the sixteenth day before the calends of August, by Archbishop
Eanbald and Bishop Ethelbert.

A.D. 792. This year Offa, King of Mercia, commanded that King
Ethelbert should be beheaded; and Osred, who had been king of the
Northumbrians, returning home after his exile, was apprehended
and slain, on the eighteenth day before the calends of October.
His body is deposited at Tinemouth. Ethelred this year, on the
third day before the calends of October, took unto himself a new
wife, whose name was Elfleda.

A.D. 793. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of
the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these
were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and
whirlwinds, and fiery, dragons flying across the firmament.
These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and
not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in
the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made
lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island, by rapine
and slaughter. Siga died on the eighth day before the calends of

A.D. 794. This year died Pope Adrian; and also Offa, King of
Mercia, on the fourth day before the ides of August, after he had
reigned forty winters. Ethelred, king of the Northumbrians, was
slain by his own people, on the thirteenth day before the calends
of May; in consequence of which, Bishops Ceolwulf and Eadbald
retired from the land. Everth took to the government of Mercia,
and died the same year. Eadbert, whose other name was Pryn,
obtained the kingdom of Kent; and Alderman Ethelherd died on the
calends of August. In the meantime, the heathen armies spread
devastation among the Northumbrians, and plundered the monastery
of King Everth at the mouth of the Wear. There, however, some of
their leaders were slain; and some of their ships also were
shattered to pieces by the violence of the weather; many of the
crew were drowned; and some, who escaped alive to the shore, were
soon dispatched at the mouth of the river.

A.D. 795. This year was the moon eclipsed, between cock-crowing
and dawn, (31) on the fifth day before the calends of April; and
Erdulf succeeded to the Northumbrian kingdom on the second before
the ides of May. He was afterwards consecrated and raised to his
throne, at York, on the seventh day before the calends of June,
by Archbishop Eanbald, and Bishops Ethelbert, Hibbald, and

A.D. 796. This year died Archbishop Eanbald, on the fourth day
before the ides of August; and his body is deposited at York.
The same year also died Bishop Ceolwulf; and another Eanbald was
consecrated to the see of the former, on the nineteenth day
before the calends of September. About the same time Cynewulf,
King of Mercia, made inroads upon the inhabitants of Kent as far
as the marsh; and the Mercians seized Edbert Pryn, their king,
led him bound into Mercia, and suffered men to pick out his eyes,
and cut off his hands. (32) And Ethelard, Archbishop of
Canterbury, held a synod, wherein he ratified and confirmed, by
command of Pope Leo, all things concerning God's monasteries that
were fixed in Witgar's days, and in other king's days, saying
thus: "I Ethelard, the humble Archbishop of Canterbury, with the
unanimous concurrence of the whole synod, and of all the
congregations of all the minsters, to which in former days
freedom was given by faithful men, in God's name and by his
terrible judgment do decree, as I have command from Pope Leo,
that henceforth none dare to choose them lords from lewd men over
God's inheritance; but, as it is in the writ that the pope has
given, or holy men have settled, our fathers and our teachers,
concerning holy minsters, so they continue untainted without any
resistance. If there is any man that will not observe this
decree of God, of our pope, and of us, but overlooketh it, and
holdeth it for nought, let them know, that they shall give an
account before the judgment-seat of God. And I Ethelard,
archbishop, with twelve bishops, and with three and twenty
abbots, this same with the rood-token of Christ confirm and

((A.D. 796. This year Offa, king of the Mercians, died on the
fourth before the kalends of August; he reigned forty years.))

A.D. 797. This year the Romans cut out the tongue of Pope Leo,
put out his eyes, and drove him from his see; but soon after, by
the assistance of God, he could see and speak, and became pope as
he was before. Eanbald also received the pall on the sixth day
before the ides of September, and Bishop Ethelherd died on the
third before the calends of November.

A.D. 798. This year a severe battle was fought in the
Northumbrian territory, during Lent, on the fourth day before the
nones of April, at Whalley; wherein Alric, the son of Herbert,
was slain, and many others with him.

A.D. 799. This year Archbishop Ethelbert, and Cynbert, Bishop of
Wessex, went to Rome. In the meantime Bishop Alfun died at
Sudbury, and was buried at Dunwich. After him Tidfrith was
elected to the see; and Siric, king of the East Saxons, went to
Rome. In this year the body of Witburga was found entire, and
free from decay, at Dercham, after a lapse of five and fifty
years from the period of her decease.

A.D. 800. This year was the moon eclipsed, at eight in the
evening, on the seventeenth day before the calends of February;
and soon after died King Bertric and Alderman Worr. Egbert
succeeded to the West-Saxon kingdom; and the same day Ethelmund,
alderman of the Wiccians, rode over the Thames at Kempsford;
where he was met by Alderman Woxtan, with the men of Wiltshire,
and a terrible conflict ensued, in which both the commanders were
slain, but the men of Wiltshire obtained the victory.

((A.D. 801. This year Beornmod was ordained Bishop of

A.D. 802. This year was the moon eclipsed, at dawn, on the
thirteenth day before the calends of January; and Bernmod was
consecrated Bishop of Rochester.

A.D. 803. This year died Hibbald, Bishop of Holy-island, on the
twenty-fourth of June, and Egbert was consecrated in his stead,
on the thirteenth of June following. Archbishop Ethelherd also
died in Kent, and Wulfred was chosen archbishop in his stead.
Abbot Forthred, in the course of the same year, departed this

A.D. 804. This year Archbishop Wulfred received his pall.

A.D. 805. This year died King Cuthred in Kent, and Abbess
Colburga, and Alderman Herbert.

A.D. 806. This year was the moon eclipsed, on the first o[
September; Erdwulf, king of the Northumbrians, was banished from
his dominions; and Eanbert, Bishop of Hexham, departed this life.
This year also, on the next day before the nones of June, a cross
was seen in the moon, on a Wednesday, at the dawn; and
afterwards, during the same year, on the third day before the
calends of September, a wonderful circle was displayed about the

A.D. 807. This year was the sun eclipsed, precisely at eleven in
the morning, on the seventeenth day before the calends of August.

A.D. 812. This year died the Emperor Charlemagne, after a reign
of five and forty winters; and Archbishop Wulfred, accompanied by
Wigbert, Bishop of Wessex, undertook a journey to Rome.

A.D. 813. This year Archbishop Wulfred returned to his own see,
with the blessing of Pope Leo; and King Egbert spread devastation
in Cornwall from east to west.

A.D. 814. This year died Leo, the noble and holy pope; and
Stephen succeeded him in the papal government.

A.D. 816. This year died Pope Stephen; and Paschalis was
consecrated pope after him. This same year the school of the
English nation at Rome was destroyed by fire.

A.D. 819. This year died Cenwulf, King of Mercia; and Ceolwulf
(33) succeeded him. Alderman Eadbert also departed this life.

A.D. 821. This year Ceolwulf was deprived of his kingdom.

A.D. 822. This year two aldermen were slain, whose names were
Burhelm and Mucca; and a synod was holden at Cliff's-Hoo.

A.D. 823. This year a battle was fought between the Welsh in
Cornwall and the people of Devonshire, at Camelford; and in the
course of the same year Egbert, king of the West-Saxons, and
Bernwulf, King of Mercia, fought a battle at Wilton, in which
Egbert gained the victory, but there was great slaughter on both
sides. Then sent he his son Ethelwulf into Kent, with a large
detachment from the main body of the army, accompanied by his
bishop, Elstan, and his alderman, Wulfherd; who drove Baldred,
the king, northward over the Thames. Whereupon the men of Kent
immediately submitted to him; as did also the inhabitants of
Surrey, and Sussex, and Essex; who had been unlawfully kept from
their allegiance by his relatives. The same year also, the king
of the East-Angles, and his subjects besought King Egbert to give
them peace and protection against the terror of the Mercians;
whose king, Bernwulf, they slew in the course of the same year.

A.D. 825. This year Ludecan, King of Mercia, was slain, and his
five aldermen with him; after which Wiglaf succeeded to the

A.D. 827. This year was the moon eclipsed, on mid-winter's mass-
night; and King Egbert, in the course of the same year, conquered
the Mercian kingdom, and all that is south of the Humber, being
the eighth king who was sovereign of all the British dominions.
Ella, king of the South-Saxons, was the first who possessed so
large a territory; the second was Ceawlin, king of the West-
Saxons: the third was Ethelbert, King of Kent; the fourth was
Redwald, king of the East-Angles; the fifth was Edwin, king of
the Northumbrians; the sixth was Oswald, who succeeded him; the
seventh was Oswy, the brother of Oswald; the eighth was Egbert,
king of the West-Saxons. This same Egbert led an army against
the Northumbrians as far as Dore, where they met him, and offered
terms of obedience and subjection, on the acceptance of which
they returned home.

A.D. 828. This year Wiglaf recovered his Mercian kingdom, and
Bishop Ethelwald departed this life. The same year King Egbert
led an army against the people of North-Wales, and compelled them
all to peaceful submission.

A.D. 829. This year died Archbishop Wulfred; and Abbot Feologild
was after him chosen to the see, on the twenty-fifth of April,
and consecrated on a Sunday, the eleventh of June. On the
thirteenth of August he was dead!

A.D. 830. This year Ceolnoth was chosen and consecrated
archbishop on the death of Abbot Feologild.

A.D. 831. This year Archbishop Ceolnoth received the pall.

A.D. 832. This year heathen men overran the Isle of Shepey.

A.D. 833. This year fought King Egbert with thirty-five pirates
at Charmouth, where a great slaughter was made, and the Danes
remained masters of the field. Two bishops, Hereferth and Wigen,
and two aldermen, Dudda and Osmod, died the same year.

A.D. 835. This year came a great naval armament into West-Wales,
where they were joined by the people, who commenced war against
Egbert, the West-Saxon king. When he heard this, he proceeded
with his army against them and fought with them at Hengeston,
where he put to flight both the Welsh and the Danes.

A.D. 836. This year died King Egbert. Him Offa, King of Mercia,
and Bertric, the West-Saxon king, drove out of England into
France three years before he was king. Bertric assisted Offa
because he had married his daughter. Egbert having afterwards
returned, reigned thirty-seven winters and seven months. Then
Ethelwulf, the son of Egbert, succeeded to the West-Saxon
kingdom; and he gave his son Athelstan the kingdom of Kent, and
of Essex, and of Surrey, and of Sussex.

A.D. 837. This year Alderman Wulfherd fought at Hamton with
thirty-three pirates, and after great slaughter obtained the
victory, but he died the same year. Alderman Ethelhelm also,
with the men of Dorsetshire, fought with the Danish army in
Portland-isle, and for a good while put them to flight; but in
the end the Danes became masters of the field, and slew the

A.D. 838. This year Alderman Herbert was slain by the heathens,
and many men with him, among the Marshlanders. The same year,
afterwards, in Lindsey, East-Anglia, and Kent, were many men
slain by the army.

A.D. 839. This year there was great slaughter in London,
Canterbury, and Rochester.

A.D. 840. This year King Ethelwulf fought at Charmouth with
thirty-five ship's-crews, and the Danes remained masters of the
place. The Emperor Louis died this year.

A.D. 845. This year Alderman Eanwulf, with the men of
Somersetshire, and Bishop Ealstan, and Alderman Osric, with the
men of Dorsetshire, fought at the mouth of the Parret with the
Danish army; and there, after making a great slaughter, obtained
the victory.

A.D. 851. This year Alderman Ceorl, with the men of Devonshire,
fought the heathen army at Wemburg, and after making great
slaughter obtained the victory. The same year King Athelstan and
Alderman Elchere fought in their ships, and slew a large army at
Sandwich in Kent, taking nine ships and dispersing the rest. The
heathens now for the first time remained over winter in the Isle
of Thanet. The same year came three hundred and fifty ships into
the mouth of the Thames; the crew of which went upon land, and
stormed Canterbury and London; putting to flight Bertulf, king of
the Mercians, with his army; and then marched southward over the
Thames into Surrey. Here Ethelwulf and his son Ethelbald, at the
head of the West-Saxon army, fought with them at Ockley, and made
the greatest slaughter of the heathen army that we have ever
heard reported to this present day. There also they obtained the

A.D. 852. About this time Abbot Ceolred of Medhamsted, with the
concurrence of the monks, let to hand the land of Sempringham to
Wulfred, with the provision, that after his demise the said land
should revert to the monastery; that Wulfred should give the land
of Sleaford to Meohamsted, and should send each year into the
monastery sixty loads of wood, twelve loads of coal, six loads of
peat, two tuns full of fine ale, two neats' carcases, six hundred
loaves, and ten kilderkins of Welsh ale; one horse also each
year, and thirty shillings, and one night's entertainment. This
agreement was made in the presence of King Burhred. Archbishop
Ceolnoth, Bishops Tunbert, Kenred, Aldhun, and Bertred; Abbots
Witred and Weftherd, Aldermen Ethelherd and Hunbert, and many

A.D. 853. This year Burhred, King of Mercia, with his council,
besought King Ethelwulf to assist him to subdue North-Wales. He
did so; and with an army marched over Mercia into North-Wales,
and made all the inhabitants subject to him. The same year King
Ethelwulf sent his son Alfred to Rome; and Leo, who was then
pope, consecrated him king, and adopted him as his spiritual son.
The same year also Elchere with the men of Kent, and Huda with
the men of Surrey, fought in the Isle of Thanet with the heathen
army, and soon obtained the victory; but there were many men
slain and drowned on either hand, and both the aldermen killed.
Burhred, the Mercian king, about this time received in marriage
the daughter of Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons.

A.D. 854. This year the heathen men (34) for the first time
remained over winter in the Isle of Shepey. The same year King
Ethelwulf registered a TENTH of his land over all his kingdom for
the honour of God and for his own everlasting salvation. The
same year also he went to Rome with great pomp, and was resident
there a twelvemonth. Then he returned homeward; and Charles,
king of the Franks, gave him his daughter, whose name was Judith,
to be his queen. After this he came to his people, and they were
fain to receive him; but about two years after his residence
among the Franks he died; and his body lies at Winchester. He
reigned eighteen years and a half. And Ethelwulf was the son of
Egbert, Egbert of Ealhmund, Ealhmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa,
Eoppa of Ingild; Ingild was the brother of Ina, king of the
West-Saxons, who held that kingdom thirty-seven winters, and
afterwards went to St. Peter, where he died. And they were the
sons of Cenred, Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cutha, Cutha of
Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Creoda,
Creoda of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis,
Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawine, Freawine of Frithugar, Frithugar
of Brond, Brond of Balday, Balday of Woden, Woden of Frithuwald,
Frithuwald of Freawine, Freawine of Frithuwualf, Frithuwulf of
Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Great, Great of Taetwa, Taetwa
of Beaw, Beaw of Sceldwa, Sceldwa of Heremod, Heremod of Itermon,
Itermon of Hathra, Hathra of Hwala, Hwala of Bedwig, Bedwig of
Sceaf; that is, the son of Noah, who was born in Noah's ark:
Laznech, Methusalem, Enoh, Jared, Malalahel, Cainion, Enos, Seth,
Adam the first man, and our Father, that is, Christ. Amen. Then
two sons of Ethelwulf succeeded to the kingdom; Ethelbald to
Wessex, and Ethelbert to Kent, Essex, Surrey, and Sussex.
Ethelbald reigned five years. Alfred, his third son, Ethelwulf
had sent to Rome; and when the pope heard say that he was dead,
he consecrated Alfred king, and held him under spiritual hands,
as his father Ethelwulf had desired, and for which purpose he had
sent him thither.

((A.D. 855. And on his return homewards he took to (wife) the
daughter of Charles, king of the French, whose name was Judith,
and he came home safe. And then in about two years he died, and
his body lies at Winchester: and he reigned eighteen years and a
half, and he was the son of Egbert. And then his two sons
succeeded to the kingdom; Ethelbald to the kingdom of the
West-Saxons, and Ethelbert to the kingdom of the Kentish-men, and
of the East-Saxons, and of Surrey, and of the South-Saxons. And
he reigned five years.))

A.D. 860. This year died King Ethelbald, and his body lies at
Sherborn. Ethelbert his brother then succeeded to the whole
kingdom, and held it in good order and great tranquillity. In
his days came a large naval force up into the country, and
stormed Winchester. But Alderman Osric, with the command of
Hampshire, and Alderman Ethelwulf, with the command of Berkshire,
fought against the enemy, and putting them to flight, made
themselves masters of the field of battle. The said Ethelbert
reigned five years, and his body lies at Sherborn.

A.D. 861. This year died St. Swithun, bishop.

A.D. 865. This year sat the heathen army in the isle of Thanet,
and made peace with the men of Kent, who promised money
therewith; but under the security of peace, and the promise of
money, the army in the night stole up the country, and overran
all Kent eastward.

A.D. 866. This year Ethered, (35) brother of Ethelbert, took to
the West-Saxon government; and the same year came a large heathen
army into England, and fixed their winter-quarters in East-
Anglia, where they were soon horsed; and the inhabitants made
peace with them.

A.D. 867. This year the army went from the East-Angles over the
mouth of the Humber to the Northumbrians, as far as York. And
there was much dissension in that nation among themselves; they
had deposed their king Osbert, and had admitted Aella, who had no
natural claim. Late in the year, however, they returned to their
allegiance, and they were now fighting against the common enemy;
having collected a vast force, with which they fought the army at
York; and breaking open the town, some of them entered in. Then
was there an immense slaughter of the Northumbrians, some within
and some without; and both the kings were slain on the spot. The
survivors made peace with the army. The same year died Bishop
Ealstan, who had the bishopric of Sherborn fifty winters, and his
body lies in the town.

A.D. 868. This year the same army went into Mercia to
Nottingham, and there fixed their winter-quarters; and Burhred,
king of the Mercians, with his council, besought Ethered, king of
the West-Saxons, and Alfred, his brother; that they would assist
them in fighting against the army. And they went with the West-
Saxon army into Mercia as far as Nottingham, and there meeting
the army on the works, they beset them within. But there was no
heavy fight; for the Mercians made peace with the army.

A.D. 869. This year the army went back to York, and sat there a

A.D. 870. This year the army rode over Mercia into East-Anglia,
and there fixed their winter-quarters at Thetford. And in the
winter King Edmund fought with them; but the Danes gained the
victory, and slew the king; whereupon they overran all that land,
and destroyed all the monasteries to which they came. The names
of the leaders who slew the king were Hingwar and Hubba. At the
same time came they to Medhamsted, burning and breaking, and
slaying abbot and monks, and all that they there found. They
made such havoc there, that a monastery, which was before full
rich, was now reduced to nothing. The same year died Archbishop
Ceolnoth; and Ethered, Bishop of Witshire, was chosen Archbishop
of Canterbury.

A.D. 871. This year came the army to Reading in Wessex; and in
the course of three nights after rode two earls up, who were met
by Alderman Ethelwulf at Englefield; where he fought with them,
and obtained the victory. There one of them was slain, whose
name was Sidrac. About four nights after this, King Ethered and
Alfred his brother led their main army to Reading, where they
fought with the enemy; and there was much slaughter on either
hand, Alderman Ethelwulf being among the skain; but the Danes
kept possession of the field. And about four nights after this,
King Ethered and Alfred his brother fought with all the army on
Ashdown, and the Danes were overcome. They had two heathen
kings, Bagsac and Healfden, and many earls; and they were in two
divisions; in one of which were Bagsac and Healfden, the heathen
kings, and in the other were the earls. King Ethered therefore
fought with the troops of the kings, and there was King Bagsac
slain; and Alfred his brother fought with the troops of the
earls, and there were slain Earl Sidrac the elder, Earl Sidrac
the younger, Earl Osbern, Earl Frene, and Earl Harold. They

put both the troops to flight; there were many thousands of the
slain, and they continued fighting till night. Within a
fortnight of this, King Ethered and Alfred his brother fought
with the army at Basing; and there the Danes had the victory.
About two months after this, King Ethered and Alfred his brother
fought with the army at Marden. They were in two divisions; and
they put them both to flight, enjoying the victory for some time
during the day; and there was much slaughter on either hand; but
the Danes became masters of the field; and there was slain Bishop
Heahmund, with many other good men. After this fight came a vast
army in the summer to Reading. And after the Easter of this year
died King Ethered. He reigned five years, and his body lies at
Winburn-minster. Then Alfred, his brother, the son of Ethelwulf,
took to the kingdom of Wessex. And within a month of this, King
Alfred fought against all the Army with a small force at Wilton,
and long pursued them during the day; but the Danes got
possession of the field. This year were nine general battles
fought with the army in the kingdom south of the Thames; besides
those skirmishes, in which Alfred the king's brother, and every
single alderman, and the thanes of the king, oft rode against
them; which were accounted nothing. This year also were slain
nine earls, and one king; and the same year the West-Saxons made
peace with the army.

((A.D. 871. And the Danish-men were overcome; and they had two
heathen kings, Bagsac and Halfdene, and many earls; and there was
King Bagsac slain, and these earls; Sidrac the elder, and also
Sidrac the younger, Osbern, Frene, and Harold; and the army was
put to flight.))

A.D. 872. This year went the army to London from Reading, and
there chose their winter-quarters. Then the Mercians made peace
with the army.

A.D. 873. This year went the army against the Northumbrians, and
fixed their winter-quarters at Torksey in Lindsey. And the
Mercians again made peace with the army.

A.D. 874. This year went the army from Lindsey to Repton, and
there took up their winter-quarters, drove the king, Burhred,
over sea, when he had reigned about two and twenty winters, and
subdued all that land. He then went to Rome, and there remained
to the end of his life. And his body lies in the church of
Sancta Maria, in the school of the English nation. And the same
year they gave Ceolwulf, an unwise king's thane, the Mercian
kingdom to hold; and he swore oaths to them, and gave hostages,
that it should be ready for them on whatever day they would have
it; and he would be ready with himself, and with all those that
would remain with him, at the service of the army.

A.D. 875. This year went the army from Repton; and Healfden
advanced with some of the army against the Northumbrians, and
fixed his winter-quarters by the river Tine. The army then
subdued that land, and oft invaded the Picts and the
Strathclydwallians. Meanwhile the three kings, Guthrum, Oskytel,
and Anwind, went from Repton to Cambridge with a vast army, and
sat there one year. This summer King Alfred went out to sea with
an armed fleet, and fought with seven ship-rovers, one of whom he
took, and dispersed the others.

A.D. 876. This year Rolla penetrated Normandy with his army; and
he reigned fifty winters. And this year the army stole into
Wareham, a fort of the West-Saxons. The king afterwards made
peace with them; and they gave him as hostages those who were
worthiest in the army; and swore with oaths on the holy bracelet,
which they would not before to any nation, that they would
readily go out of his kingdom. Then, under colour of this, their
cavalry stole by night into Exeter. The same year Healfden
divided the land of the Northumbrians; so that they became
afterwards their harrowers and plowers.

((A.D. 876. And in this same year the army of the Danes in
England swore oaths to King Alfred upon the holy ring, which
before they would not do to any nation; and they delivered to the
king hostages from among the most distinguished men of the army,
that they would speedily depart from his kingdom; and that by
night they broke.))

A.D. 877. This year came the Danish army into Exeter from
Wareham; whilst the navy sailed west about, until they met with a
great mist at sea, and there perished one hundred and twenty
ships at Swanwich. (36) Meanwhile King Alfred with his army rode
after the cavalry as far as Exeter; but he could not overtake
them before their arrival in the fortress, where they could not
be come at. There they gave him as many hostages as he required,
swearing with solemn oaths to observe the strictest amity. In
the harvest the army entered Mercia; some of which they divided
among them, and some they gave to Ceolwulf.

A.D. 878. This year about mid-winter, after twelfth-night, the
Danish army stole out to Chippenham, and rode over the land of
the West-Saxons; where they settled, and drove many of the people
over sea; and of the rest the greatest part they rode down, and
subdued to their will; -- ALL BUT ALFRED THE KING. He, with a
little band, uneasily sought the woods and fastnesses of the
moors. And in the winter of this same year the brother of
Ingwar and Healfden landed in Wessex, in Devonshire, with three
and twenty ships, and there was he slain, and eight hundred men
with him, and forty of his army. There also was taken the war-
flag, which they called the RAVEN. In the Easter of this year
King Alfred with his little force raised a work at Athelney; from
which he assailed the army, assisted by that part of
Somersetshire which was nighest to it. Then, in the seventh week
after Easter, he rode to Brixton by the eastern side of Selwood;
and there came out to meet him all the people of
Somersersetshire, and Wiltshire, and that part of Hampshire which
is on this side of the sea; and they rejoiced to see him. Then
within one night he went from this retreat to Hey; and within one
night after he proceeded to Heddington; and there fought with all
the army, and put them to flight, riding after them as far as the
fortress, where he remained a fortnight. Then the army gave him
hostages with many oaths, that they would go out of his kingdom.
They told him also, that their king would receive baptism. And
they acted accordingly; for in the course of three weeks after,
King Guthrum, attended by some thirty of the worthiest men that
were in the army, came to him at Aller, which is near Athelney,
and there the king became his sponsor in baptism; and his
crisom-leasing was at Wedmor. He was there twelve nights with
the king, who honoured him and his attendants with many presents.

A.D. 879. This year went the army from Chippenham to
Cirencester, and sat there a year. The same year assembled a
band of pirates, and sat at Fulham by the Thames. The same year
also the sun was eclipsed one hour of the day.

A.D. 880. This year went the army from Cirencester into East-
Anglia, where they settled, and divided the land. The same year
went the army over sea, that before sat at Fulham, to Ghent in
Frankland, and sat there a year.

A.D. 881. This year went the army higher up into Frankland, and
the Franks fought with them; and there was the army horsed after
the battle.

A.D. 882. This year went the army up along the Maese far into
Frankland, and there sat a year; and the same year went King
Alfred out to sea with a fleet; and fought with four ship-rovers
of the Danes, and took two of their ships; wherein all the men
were slain; and the other two surrendered; but the men were
severely cut and wounded ere they surrendered.

A.D. 883. This year went the army up the Scheldt to Conde, and
there sat a year. And Pope Marinus sent King Alfred the "lignum
Domini". The same year led Sighelm and Athelstan to Rome the
alms which King Alfred ordered thither, and also in India to St.
Thomas and to St. Bartholomew. Then they sat against the army at
London; and there, with the favour of God, they were very
successful after the performance of their vows.

A.D. 884. This year went the army up the Somne to Amiens, and
there remained a year. This year died the benevolent Bishop

A.D. 885. This year separated the before-mentioned army in two;
one part east, another to Rochester. This city they surrounded,
and wrought another fortress around themselves. The people,
however, defended the city, until King Alfred came out with his
army. Then went the enemy to their ships, and forsook their
work. There were they provided with horses; and soon after, in
the same summer, they went over sea again. The same year sent
King Alfred a fleet from Kent into East-Anglia. As soon as they
came to Stourmouth, there met them sixteen ships of the pirates.
And they fought with them, took all the ships, and slew the men.
As they returned homeward with their booty, they met a large
fleet of the pirates, and fought with them the same day; but the
Danes had the victory. The same year, ere midwinter, died
Charles, king of the Franks. He was slain by a boar; and one
year before his brother died, who had also the Western kingdom.
They were both the sons of Louis, who also had the Western
kingdom, and died the same year that the sun was eclipsed. He
was the son of that Charles whose daughter Ethelwulf, king of the
West-Saxons, had to wife. And the same year collected a great
fleet against Old-Saxony; and there was a great fight twice in
the year, and the Saxons had the victory. There were the
Frieslanders with them. And the same year succeeded Charles to
the Western kingdom, and to all the territory this side of the
Mediterranean and beyond, as his great-grandfather held it,
except the Lidwiccians. The said Charles was the son of Louis,
who was the brother of that Charles who was the father of Judith,
whom Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, married. They were the
sons of Louis, who was the son of the elder Charles, who was the
son of Pepin. The same year died the good Pope Martin, who freed
the English school at the request of Alfred, king of the
West-Saxons. And he sent him great gifts in relics, and a part
of the rood on which Christ suffered. And the same year the army
in East-Anglia brake the truce with King Alfred.

A.D. 886. This year went the army back again to the west, that
before were bent eastward; and proceeding upwards along the
Seine, fixed their winter-quarters in the city of Paris. (37)
The same year also King Alfred fortified the city of London; and
the whole English nation turned to him, except that part of it
which was held captive by the Danes. He then committed the city
to the care of Alderman Ethered, to hold it under him.

A.D. 887. This year the army advanced beyond the bridge at
Paris; (38) and then upwards, along the Seine, to the Marne.
Then upwards on the Marne as far as Chezy; and in their two
stations, there and on the Yonne, they abode two winters. This
same year died Charles, king of the Franks. Arnulf, his
brother's son, had six weeks before his death bereft him of his
kingdom; which was now divided into five portions, and five kings
were consecrated thereto. This, however, was done with the
consent of Arnulf; and they agreed that they should hold in
subjection to him; because none of them had by birth any claim on
the father's side, except him alone. Arnulf, therefore, dwelt in
the country eastward of the Rhine; Rodulf took to the middle
district; Oda to the western; whilst Berenger and Witha became
masters of Lombardy and the Cisalpine territory. But they held
their dominion in great discord; fought two general battles, and
frequently overran the country in partial encounters, displacing
each other several times. The same year also, in which the
Danish army advanced beyond the bridge at Paris, Alderman
Ethelhelm led the alms of the West-Saxons and of King Alfred to

A.D. 888. This year Alderman Beeke conducted the alms of the
West-Saxons and of King Alfred to Rome; but Queen Ethelswith, who
was the sister of King Alfred, died on the way to Rome; and her
body lies at Pavia. The same year also Ethered, Archbishop of
Canterbury and Alderman Ethelwold, died in one month.

A.D. 889. This year there was no journey to Rome; except that
King Alfred sent two messengers with letters.

A.D. 890. This year Abbot Bernhelm conducted the alms of the
West-Saxons and of King Alfred to Rome; and Guthrum, king of the
Northern men, departed this life, whose baptismal name was
Athelstan. He was the godson of King Alfred; and he abode among
the East-Angles, where he first established a settlement. The
same year also went the army from the Seine to Saint Lo, which is
between the Bretons and the Franks; where the Bretons fought with
them, obtained the victory, and drove them out into a river, in
which many of them were drowned. This year also was Plegmund
chosen by God and all his saints to the archbishopric in

A.D. 891. This year went the army eastward; and King Arnulf
fought with the land-force, ere the ships arrived, in conjunction
with the eastern Franks, and Saxons, and Bavarians, and put them
to flight. And three Scots came to King Alfred in a boat without
any oars from Ireland; whence they stole away, because they would
live in a state of pilgrimage, for the love of God, they recked
not where. The boat in which they came was made of two hides and
a half; and they took with them provisions for seven nights; and
within seven nights they came to land in Cornwall, and soon after
went to King Alfred. They were thus named: Dubslane, and
Macbeth, and Maelinmun. And Swinney, the best teacher that was
among the Scots, departed this life. And the same year after
Easter, about the gang-days or before, appeared the star that men
in book-Latin call "cometa": some men say that in English it may
be termed "hairy star"; for that there standeth off from it a
long gleam of light, whilom on one side, whilom on each.

A.D. 893. This year went the large army, that we before spoke
about, back from the eastern district westward to Bologne; and
there were shipped; so that they transported themselves over at
one time with their horses withal. And they came up with two
hundred and fifty ships into the mouth of the Limne, which is in
East-Kent, at the east end of the vast wood that we call Andred.
This wood is in length, east and west, one hundred and twenty
miles, or longer, and thirty miles broad. The river that we
before spoke about lieth out of the weald. On this river they
towed up their ships as far as the weald, four miles from the
mouth outwards; and there destroyed a fort within the fen,
whereon sat a few churls, and which was hastily wrought. Soon
after this came Hasten up with eighty ships into the mouth of the
Thames, and wrought him there a work at Milton, and the other
army at Appledore.

A.D. 894. This year, that was about twelve months after they had
wrought a work in the eastern district, the Northumbrians and
East-Angles had given oaths to King Alfred, and the East-Angles
six hostages; nevertheless, contrary to the truce, as oft as the
other plunderers went out with all their army, then went they
also, either with them, or in a separate division. Upon this
King Alfred gathered his army, and advanced, so that he encamped
between the two armies at the highest point he could find
defended by wood and by water, that he might reach either, if
they would seek any field. Then went they forth in quest of the
wealds, in troops and companies, wheresoever the country was
defenceless. But they were also sought after most days by other
companies, either by day or by night, both from the army and also
from the towns. The king had divided his army into two parts; so
that they were always half at home, half out; besides the men
that should maintain the towns. The army came not all out of
their stations more than twice; once, when they first came to
land, ere the forces were collected, and again, when they wished
to depart from their stations. They had now seized much booty,
and would ferry it northward over Thames into Essex, to meet
their ships. But the army rode before them, fought with them at
Farnham, routed their forces, and there arrested the booty. And
they flew over Thames without any ford, then up by the Colne on
an island. Then the king's forces beset them without as long as
they had food; but they had their time set, and their meat noted.
And the king was advancing thitherwards on his march with the
division that accompanied him. But while he was advancing
thitherwards, the other force was returning homewards. The
Danes, however, still remained behind; for their king was wounded
in the fight, so that they could not carry him. Then collected
together those that dwell in Northumbria and East-Anglia about a
hundred ships, and went south about; and with some forty more
went north about, and besieged a fort in Devonshire by the north
sea; and those who went south about beset Exeter. When the king
heard that, then went he west towards Exeter with all his force,
except a very considerable part of the eastern army, who advanced
till they came to London; and there being joined by the citizens
and the reinforcements that came from the west, they went east to
Barnfleet. Hasten was there with his gang, who before were
stationed at Milton, and also the main army had come thither,
that sat before in the mouth of the Limne at Appledore. Hasten
had formerly constructed that work at Barnfleet, and was then
gone out on plunder, the main army being at home. Then came the
king's troops, and routed the enemy, broke down the work, took
all that was therein money, women, and children and brought all
to London. And all the ships they either broke to pieces, or
burned, or brought to London or to Rochester. And Hasten's wife
and her two sons they brought to the king, who returned them to
him, because one of them was his godson, and the other Alderman
Ethered's. They had adopted them ere Hasten came to Bamfleet;
when he had given them hostages and oaths, and the king had also
given him many presents; as he did also then, when he returned
the child and the wife. And as soon as they came to Bamfleet,
and the work was built, then plundered he in the same quarter of
his kingdom that Ethered his compeer should have held; and at
another time he was plundering in the same district when his work
was destroyed. The king then went westward with the army toward
Exeter, as I before said, and the army had beset the city; but
whilst he was gone they went to their ships. Whilst he was thus
busied there with the army, in the west, the marauding parties
were both gathered together at Shobury in Essex, and there built
a fortress. Then they both went together up by the Thames, and a
great concourse joined them, both from the East-Angles and from
the Northumbrians. They then advanced upward by the Thames, till
they arrived near the Severn. Then they proceeded upward by the
Severn. Meanwhile assembled Alderman Ethered, Alderman Ethelm,
Alderman Ethelnoth, and the king's thanes, who were employed at
home at the works, from every town east of the Parret, as well as
west of Selwood, and from the parts east and also north of the
Thames and west of the Severn, and also some part of North-Wales.
When they were all collected together, they overtook the rear of
the enemy at Buttington on the banks of the Severn, and there
beset them without on each side in a fortress. When they had sat
there many weeks on both sides of the water, and the king
meanwhile was in Devonshire westward with the naval force, then
were the enemy weighed down with famine. They had devoured the
greater part of their horses; and the rest had perished with
hunger. Then went they out to the men that sat on the eastern
side of the river, and fought with them; but the Christians had
the victory. And there Ordhelm, the king's thane, was slain; and
also many other king's thanes; and of the Danes there were many
slain, and that part of them that came away escaped only by
flight. As soon as they came into Essex to their fortress, and
to their ships, then gathered the remnant again in East-Anglia
and from the Northumbrians a great force before winter, and
having committed their wives and their ships and their booty to
the East-Angles, they marched on the stretch by day and night,
till they arrived at a western city in Wirheal that is called
Chester. There the army could not overtake them ere they arrived
within the work: they beset the work though, without, some two
days, took all the cattle that was thereabout, slew the men whom
they could overtake without the work, and all the corn they
either burned or consumed with their horses every evening. That
was about a twelvemonth since they first came hither over sea.

A.D. 895. Soon after that, in this year, went the army from
Wirheal into North-Wales; for they could not remain there,
because they were stripped both of the cattle and the corn that
they had acquired by plunder. When they went again out of North-
Wales with the booty they had acquired there, they marched over
Northumberland and East-Anglia, so that the king's army could not
reach them till they came into Essex eastward, on an island that
is out at sea, called Mersey. And as the army returned homeward
that had beset Exeter, they went up plundering in Sussex nigh
Chichester; but the townsmen put them to flight, and slew many
hundreds of them, and took some of their ships. Then, in the
same year, before winter, the Danes, who abode in Mersey, towed
their ships up on the Thames, and thence up the Lea. That was
about two years after that they came hither over sea.

A.D. 896. This same year wrought the aforesaid army a work by
the Lea, twenty miles above the city of London. Then. in the
summer of this year, went a large party of the citizens. and also
of other folk, and made an attack on the work of the Danes; but
they were there routed, and some four of the king's thanes were
slain. In the harvest afterward the king encamped close to the
city, whilst they reaped their corn, that the Danes might not
deprive them of the crop. Then, some day, rode the king up by
the river; and observed a place where the river might be
obstructed, so that they could not bring out their ships. And
they did so. They wrought two works on the two sides of the
river. And when they had begun the work, and encamped before it,
then understood the army that they could not bring out their
ships. Whereupon they left them, and went over land, till they
came to Quatbridge by Severn; and there wrought a work. Then
rode the king's army westward after the enemy. And the men of
London fetched the ships; and all that they could not lead away
they broke up; but all that were worthy of capture they brought
into the port of London. And the Danes procured an asylum for
their wives among the East-Angles, ere they went out of the fort.
During the winter they abode at Quatbridge. That was about three
years since they came hither over sea into the mouth of the

A.D. 897. In the summer of this year went the army, some into
East-Anglia, and some into Northumbria; and those that were
penniless got themselves ships, and went south over sea to the
Seine. The enemy had not, thank God. entirely destroyed the
English nation; but they were much more weakened in these three
years by the disease of cattle, and most of all of men; so that
many of the mightiest of the king's thanes. that were in the
land, died within the three years. Of these. one was Swithulf
Bishop of Rochester, Ceolmund alderman in Kent, Bertulf alderman
in Essex, Wulfred alderman in Hampshire, Elhard Bishop of
Dorchester, Eadulf a king's thane in Sussex, Bernuff governor of
Winchester, and Egulf the king's horse-thane; and many also with
them; though I have named only the men of the highest rank. This
same year the plunderers in East-Anglia and Northumbria greatly
harassed the land of the West-Saxons by piracies on the southern
coast, but most of all by the esks which they built many years
before. Then King Alfred gave orders for building long ships
against the esks, which were full-nigh twice as long as the
others. Some had sixty oars, some more; and they were both
swifter and steadier, and also higher than the others. They were
not shaped either after the Frisian or the Danish model, but so
as he himself thought that they might be most serviceable. Then,
at a certain turn of this same year, came six of their ships to
the Isle of Wight; and going into Devonshire, they did much
mischief both there and everywhere on the seacoast. Then
commanded the king his men to go out against them with nine of
the new ships, and prevent their escape by the mouth of the river
to the outer sea. Then came they out against them with three
ships, and three others were standing upwards above the mouth on
dry land: for the men were gone off upon shore. Of the first
three ships they took two at the mouth outwards, and slew the
men; the third veered off, but all the men were slain except
five; and they too were severely wounded. Then came onward those
who manned the other ships, which were also very uneasily
situated. Three were stationed on that side of the deep where
the Danish ships were aground, whilst the others were all on the
opposite side; so that none of them could join the rest; for the
water had ebbed many furlongs from them. Then went the Danes
from their three ships to those other three that were on their
side, be-ebbed; and there they then fought. There were slain
Lucomon, the king's reve, and Wulfheard, a Frieslander; Ebb, a
Frieslander, and Ethelere, a Frieslander; and Ethelferth, the
king's neat-herd; and of all the men, Frieslanders and English,
sixty-two; of the Danes a hundred and twenty. The tide, however,
reached the Danish ships ere the Christians could shove theirs
out; whereupon they rowed them out; but they were so crippled,
that they could not row them beyond the coast of Sussex: there
two of them the sea drove ashore; and the crew were led to
Winchester to the king, who ordered them to be hanged. The men
who escaped in the single ship came to East-Anglia, severely
wounded. This same year were lost no less than twenty ships, and
the men withal, on the southern coast. Wulfric, the king's
horse-thane, who was also viceroy of Wales, died the same year.

A.D. 898. This year died Ethelm, alderman of Wiltshire, nine
nights before midsummer; and Heahstan, who was Bishop of London.

A.D. 901. This year died ALFRED, the son of Ethelwulf, six
nights before the mass of All Saints. He was king over all the
English nation, except that part that was under the power of the
Danes. He held the government one year and a half less than
thirty winters; and then Edward his son took to the government.
Then Prince Ethelwald, the son of his paternal uncle, rode
against the towns of Winburn and of Twineham, without leave of
the king and his council. Then rode the king with his army; so
that he encamped the same night at Badbury near Winburn; and
Ethelwald remained within the town with the men that were under
him, and had all the gates shut upon him, saying, that he would
either there live or there die. But in the meantime he stole
away in the night, and sought the army in Northumberland. The
king gave orders to ride after him; but they were not able to
overtake him. The Danes, however, received him as their king.
They then rode after the wife that Ethelwald had taken without
the king's leave, and against the command of the bishops; for she
was formerly consecrated a nun. In this year also died Ethered,
who was alderman of Devonshire, four weeks before King Alfred.

A.D. 902. This year was the great fight at the Holme (39)
between the men of Kent and the Danes.

((A.D. 902. This year Elswitha died.))

A.D. 903. This year died Alderman Ethelwulf, the brother of
Elhswitha, mother of King Edward; and Virgilius abbot of the
Scots; and Grimbald the mass-priest; on the eighth day of July.
This same year was consecrated the new minster at Winchester, on
St. Judoc's advent.

A.D. 904. This year came Ethelwald hither over sea with all the
fleet that he could get, and he was submitted to in Essex. This
year the moon was eclipsed.

A.D. 905. This year Ethelwald enticed the army in East-Anglia to
rebellion; so that they overran all the land of Mercia, until
they came to Cricklade, where they forded the Thames; and having
seized, either in Bradon or thereabout, all that they could lay
their hands upon, they went homeward again. King Edward went
after, as soon as he could gather his army, and overran all their
land between the foss and the Ouse quite to the fens northward.
Then being desirous of returning thence, he issued an order
through the whole army, that they should all go out at once. But
the Kentish men remained behind, contrary to his order, though he
had sent seven messengers to them. Whereupon the army surrounded
them, and there they fought. There fell Aldermen Siwulf and
Sigelm; Eadwold, the king's thane; Abbot Kenwulf; Sigebriht, the
son of Siwulf; Eadwald, the son of Acca; and many also with them;
though I have named the most considerable. On the Danish side
were slain Eohric their king, and Prince Ethelwald, who had
enticed them to the war. Byrtsige, the son of Prince Brihtnoth;
Governor Ysop; Governor Oskytel; and very many also with them
that we now cannot name. And there was on either hand much
slaughter made; but of the Danes there were more slain, though
they remained masters of the field. Ealswitha died this same
year; and a comet appeared on the thirteenth day before the
calends of November.

((A.D. 906. This year King Edward, from necessity, concluded a
peace both with the army of East-Anglia and of North-humbria.))

A.D. 907. This year died Alfred, who was governor of Bath. The
same year was concluded the peace at Hitchingford, as King Edward
decreed, both with the Danes of East-Anglia, and those of
Northumberland; and Chester was rebuilt.

A.D. 909. This year died Denulf, who was Bishop of Winchester;
and the body of St. Oswald was translated from Bardney into

A.D. 910. This year Frithestan took to the bishopric of
Winchester; and Asser died soon after, who was Bishop o[
Sherborne. The same year King Edward sent an army both from
Wessex and Mercia, which very much harassed the northern army by
their attacks on men and property of every kind. They slew many
of the Danes, and remained in the country five weeks. This year
the Angles and the Danes fought at Tootenhall; and the Angles had
the victory. The same year Ethelfleda built the fortress at

((A.D. 910. This year the army of the Angles and of the Danes
fought at Tootenhall. And Ethelred, ealdor of the Mercians,
died; and King Edward took possession of London, and of Oxford,
and of all the lands which owed obedience thereto. And a great
fleet came hither from the south, from the Lidwiccas (Brittany),
and greatly ravaged by the Severn; but they were, afterwards,
almost all perished.))

A.D. 911. This year the army in Northumberland broke the truce,
and despised every right that Edward and his son demanded of
them; and plundered the land of the Mercians. The king had
gathered together about a hundred ships, and was then in Kent
while the ships were sailing along sea by the south-east to meet
him. The army therefore supposed that the greatest part of his
force was in the ships, and that they might go, without being
attacked, where that ever they would. When the king learned on
enquiry that they were gone out on plunder, he sent his army both
from Wessex and Mercia; and they came up with the rear of the
enemy as he was on his way homeward, and there fought with him
and put him to flight, and slew many thousands of his men. There
fell King Eowils, and King Healfden; Earls Ohter and Scurf;
Governors Agmund, Othulf, and Benesing; Anlaf the Swarthy, and
Governor Thunferth; Osferth the collector, and Governor

((A.D. 911. Then the next year after this died Ethelred, lord of
the Mercians.))

A.D. 912. This year died Ethered, alderman of Mercia; and King
Edward took to London, and to Oxford, and to all the lands that
thereunto belonged. This year also came Ethelfleda, lady of the
Mercians, on the holy eve called the invention of the holy cross,
to Shergate, and built the fortress there, and the same year that
at Bridgenorth.

A.D. 913. This year, about Martinmas, King Edward had the
northern fortress built at Hertford, betwixt the Memer, and the
Benwic, and the Lea. After this, in the summer, betwixt gang-
days and midsummer, went King Edward with some of his force into
Essex, to Maldon; and encamped there the while that men built and
fortified the town of Witham. And many of the people submitted
to him, who were before under the power of the Danes. And some
of his force, meanwhile, built the fortress at Hertford on the
south side of the Lea. This year by the permission of God went
Ethelfleda, lady of Mercia, with all the Mercians to Tamworth;
and built the fort there in the fore-part of the summer; and
before Lammas that at Stafford: in the next year that at
Eddesbury, in the beginning of the summer; and the same year,
late in the autumn, that at Warwick. Then in the following year
was built, after mid-winter, that at Chirbury and that at
Warburton; and the same year before mid-winter that at Runkorn.

((A.D. 915. This year was Warwick built.))

A.D. 916. This year was the innocent Abbot Egbert slain, before
midsummer, on the sixteenth day before the calends of July. The
same day was the feast of St. Ciricius the martyr, with his
companions. And within three nights sent Ethelfleda an army into
Wales, and stormed Brecknock; and there took the king's wife,
with some four and thirty others.

A.D. 917. This year rode the army, after Easter, out of
Northampton and Leicester; and having broken the truce they slew
many men at Hookerton and thereabout. Then, very soon after
this, as the others came home, they found other troops that were
riding out against Leighton. But the inhabitants were aware of
it; and having fought with them they put them into full flight;
and arrested all that they had taken, and also of their horses
and of their weapons a good deal.

A.D. 918. This year came a great naval armament over hither
south from the Lidwiccians; (40) and two earls with it, Ohter and
Rhoald. They went then west about, till they entered the mouth
of the Severn; and plundered in North-Wales everywhere by the
sea, where it then suited them; and took Camlac the bishop in
Archenfield, and led him with them to their ships; whom King
Edward afterwards released for forty pounds. After this went the
army all up; and would proceed yet on plunder against
Archenfield; but the men of Hertford met them, and of Glocester,
and of the nighest towns; and fought with them, and put them to
flight; and they slew the Earl Rhoald, and the brother of Ohter
the other earl, and many of the army. And they drove them into a
park; and beset them there without, until they gave them
hostages, that they would depart from the realm of King Edward.
And the king had contrived that a guard should be set against
them on the south side of Severnmouth; west from Wales, eastward
to the mouth of the Avon; so that they durst nowhere seek that
land on that side. Nevertheless, they eluded them at night, by
stealing up twice; at one time to the east of Watchet, and at
another time at Porlock. There was a great slaughter each time;
so that few of them came away, except those only who swam out to
the ships. Then sat they outward on an island, called the Flat-
holms; till they were very short of meat, and many men died of
hunger, because they could not reach any meat. Thence went they
to Dimmet, and then out to Ireland. This was in harvest. After
this, in the same year, before Martinmas, went King Edward to
Buckingham with his army, and sat there four weeks, during which
he built the two forts on either side of the water, ere he
departed thence. And Earl Thurkytel sought him for his lord; and
all the captains, and almost all the first men that belonged to
Bedford; and also many of those that belonged to Northampton.
This year Ethelfleda, lady of the Mercians, with the help of God,
before Laminas, conquered the town called Derby, with all that
thereto belonged; and there were also slain four of her thanes,
that were most dear to her, within the gates.

((A.D. 918. But very shortly after they had become so, she died
at Tamworth, twelve days before midsummer, the eighth year of her
having rule and right lordship over the Mercians; and her body
lies at Gloucester, within the east porch of St. Peter's

A.D. 919. This year King Edward went with his army to Bedford,
before Martinmas, and conquered the town; and almost all the
burgesses, who obeyed him before, returned to him; and he sat
there four weeks, and ordered the town to be repaired on the
south side of the water, ere he departed thence.

((A.D. 919. This year also the daughter of Ethelred, lord of the
Mercians, was deprived of all dominion over the Mercians, and
carried into Wessex, three weeks before mid-winter; she was
called Elfwina.))

A.D. 920. This year, before midsummer, went King Edward to
Maldon; and repaired and fortified the town, ere he departed
thence. And the same year went Earl Thurkytel over sea to
Frankland with the men who would adhere to him, under the
protection and assistance of King Edward. This year Ethelfleda
got into her power, with God's assistance, in the early part of
the year, without loss, the town of Leicester; and the greater
part of the army that belonged thereto submitted to her. And the
Yorkists had also promised and confirmed, some by agreement and
some with oaths, that they would be in her interest. But very
soon after they had done this, she departed, twelve nights before
midsummer, at Tamworth, the eighth year that she was holding the
government of the Mercians with right dominion; and her body
lieth at Glocester, in the east porch of St. Peter's church.
This year also was the daughter of Ethered, lord of the Mercians,
deprived of all authority over the Mercians, and led into Wessex,
three weeks before midwinter. Her name was Healfwina.

A.D. 921. This year, before Easter, King Edward ordered his men
to go to the town of Towcester, and to rebuild it. Then again,
after that, in the same year, during the gang-days, he ordered
the town of Wigmore to be repaired. The same summer, betwixt
Lammas and midsummer, the army broke their parole from
Northampton and from Leicester; and went thence northward to
Towcester, and fought against the town all day, and thought that
they should break into it; but the people that were therein
defended it, till more aid came to them; and the enemy then
abandoned the town, and went away. Then again, very soon after
this, they went out at night for plunder, and came upon men
unaware, and seized not a little, both in men and cattle, betwixt
Burnham-wood and Aylesbury. At the same time went the army from
Huntington and East-Anglia, and constructed that work at
Ternsford; which they inhabited and fortified; and abandoned the
other at Huntingdon; and thought that they should thence oft with
war and contention recover a good deal of this land. Thence they
advanced till they came to Bedford; where the men who were within
came out against them, and fought with them, and put them to
flight, and slew a good number of them. Then again, after this,
a great army yet collected itself from East-Anglia and from
Mercia, and went to the town of Wigmore; which they besieged
without, and fought against long in the day; and took the cattle
about it; but the men defended the town, who were within; and the
enemy left the town, and went away. After this, the same summer,
a large force collected itself in King Edward's dominions, from
the nighest towns that could go thither, and went to Temsford;
and they beset the town, and fought thereon; until they broke
into it, and slew the king, and Earl Toglos, and Earl Mann his
son, and his brother, and all them that were therein, and who
were resolved to defend it; and they took the others, and all
that was therein. After this, a great force collected soon in
harvest, from Kent, from Surrey, from Essex, and everywhere from
the nighest towns; and went to Colchester, and beset the town,
and fought thereon till they took it, and slew all the people,
and seized all that was therein; except those men who escaped
therefrom over the wall. After this again, this same harvest, a
great army collected itself from East-Anglia, both of the land-
forces and of the pirates, which they had enticed to their
assistance, and thought that they should wreak their vengeance.
They went to Maldon, and beset the town, and fought thereon,
until more aid came to the townsmen from without to help. The
enemy then abandoned the town, and went from it. And the men
went after, out of the town, and also those that came from
without to their aid; and put the army to flight, and slew many
hundreds of them, both of the pirates and of the others. Soon
after this, the same harvest, went King Edward with the
West-Saxon army to Passham; and sat there the while that men
fortified the town of Towcester with a stone wall. And there
returned to him Earl Thurferth, and the captains, and all the
army that belonged to Northampton northward to the Welland, and
sought him for their lord and protector. When this division of
the army went home, then went another out, and marched to the
town of Huntingdon; and repaired and renewed it, where it was
broken down before, by command of King Edward. And all the
people of the country that were left submitted to King Edward,
and sought his peace and protection. After this, the same year,
before Martinmas, went King Edward with the West-Saxon army to
Colchester; and repaired and renewed the town, where it was
broken down before. And much people turned to him. both in East-
Anglia and in Essex, that were before under the power of the
Danes. And all the army in East-Anglia swore union with him;
that they would all that he would, and would protect all that he
protected, either by sea or land. And the army that belonged to
Cambridge chose him separately for their lord and protector, and
confirmed the same with oaths, as he had advised. This year King
Edward repaired the town of Gladmouth; and the same year King
Sihtric slew Neil his brother.

A.D. 922. This year, betwixt gang-days and midsummer, went King
Edward with his army to Stamford, and ordered the town to be
fortified on the south side of the river. And all the people
that belonged to the northern town submitted to him, and sought
him for their lord. It was whilst he was tarrying there, that
Ethelfleda his sister died at Tamworth, twelve nights before
midsummer. Then rode he to the borough of Tamworth; and all the
population in Mercia turned to him, who before were subject to
Ethelfleda. And the kings in North-Wales, Howel, and Cledauc,
and Jothwel, and all the people of North-Wales, sought him for
their lord. Then went he thence to Nottingham, and secured that
borough, and ordered it to be repaired, and manned both with
English and with Danes. And all the population turned to him,
that was settled in Mercia, both Danish and English.

A.D. 923. This year went King Edward with an army, late in the
harvest, to Thelwall; and ordered the borough to be repaired, and
inhabited, and manned. And he ordered another army also from the
population of Mercia, the while he sat there to go to Manchester
in Northumbria, to repair and to man it. This year died
Archbishop Plegmund; and King Reynold won York.

A.D. 924. This year, before midsummer, went King Edward with an
army to Nottingham; and ordered the town to be repaired on the
south side of the river, opposite the other, and the bridge over
the Trent betwixt the two towns. Thence he went to Bakewell in
Peakland; and ordered a fort to be built as near as possible to
it, and manned. And the King of Scotland, with all his people,
chose him as father and lord; as did Reynold, and the son of
Eadulf, and all that dwell in Northumbria, both English and
Danish, both Northmen and others; also the king of the
Strathclydwallians, and all his people.

((A.D. 924. This year Edward was chosen for father and for lord
by the king of the Scots, and by the Scots, and King Reginald,
and by all the North-humbrians, and also the king of the
Strath-clyde Britons, and by all the Strath-clyde Britons.))

((A.D. 924. This year King Edward died among the Mercians at
Farndon; and very shortly, about sixteen days after this, Elward
his son died at Oxford; and their bodies lie at Winchester. And
Athelstan was chosen king by the Mercians, and consecrated at
Kingston. And he gave his sister to Ofsae (Otho), son of the
king of the Old-Saxons.))

A.D. 925. This year died King Edward at Farndon in Mercia; and
Elward his son died very soon after this, in Oxford. Their
bodies lie at Winchester. And Athelstan was chosen king in
Mercia, and consecrated at Kingston. He gave his sister to Otho,
son of the king of the Old-Saxons. St. Dunstan was now born; and
Wulfhelm took to the archbishopric in Canterbury. This year King
Athelstan and Sihtric king of the Northumbrians came together at
Tamworth, the sixth day before the calends of February, and
Athelstan gave away his sister to him.

((A.D. 925. This year Bishop Wulfhelm was consecrated. And that
same year King Edward died.))

A.D. 926. This year appeared fiery lights in the northern part
of the firmament; and Sihtric departed; and King Athelstan took
to the kingdom of Northumbria, and governed all the kings that
were in this island: -- First, Howel, King of West-Wales; and
Constantine, King of the Scots; and Owen, King of Monmouth; and
Aldred, the son of Eadulf, of Bamburgh. And with covenants and
oaths they ratified their agreement in the place called Emmet, on
the fourth day before the ides of July; and renounced all
idolatry, and afterwards returned in peace.

A.D. 927. This year King Athelstan expelled King Guthfrith; and
Archbishop Wulfhelm went to Rome.

A.D. 928. William took to Normandy, and held it fifteen years.

((A.D. 931. This year died Frithstan, Bishop of Winchester, and
Brinstan was blessed in his place.))

A.D. 932. This year Burnstan was invested Bishop of Winchester
on the fourth day before the calends of June; and he held the
bishopric two years and a half.

A.D. 933. This year died Bishop Frithestan; and Edwin the
atheling was drowned in the sea.

A.D. 934. This year went King Athelstan into Scotland, both with
a land-force and a naval armament, and laid waste a great part of
it; and Bishop Burnstan died at Winchester at the feast of All

A.D. 935. This year Bishop Elfheah took to the bishopric of

((A.D. 937. This year King Athelstan and Edmund his brother led
a force to Brumby, and there fought against Anlaf; and, Christ
helping, had the victory: and they there slew five kings and
seven earls.))

A.D. 938. Here
Athelstan king,
of earls the lord,
rewarder of heroes,
and his brother eke,
Edmund atheling,
elder of ancient race,
slew in the fight,
with the edge of their swords,
the foe at Brumby!
The sons of Edward
their board-walls clove,
and hewed their banners,
with the wrecks of their hammers.
So were they taught
by kindred zeal,
that they at camp oft
'gainst any robber
their land should defend,
their hoards and homes.
Pursuing fell
the Scottish clans;
the men of the fleet
in numbers fell;
'midst the din of the field
the warrior swate.
Since the sun was up
in morning-tide,
gigantic light!
glad over grounds,
God's candle bright,
eternal Lord! --
'till the noble creature
sat in the western main:
there lay many
of the Northern heroes
under a shower of arrows,
shot over shields;
and Scotland's boast,
a Scythian race,
the mighty seed of Mars!
With chosen troops,
throughout the day,
the West-Saxons fierce
press'd on the loathed bands;
hew'd down the fugitives,
and scatter'd the rear,
with strong mill-sharpen'd blades,
The Mercians too
the hard hand-play
spared not to any
of those that with Anlaf
over the briny deep
in the ship's bosom
sought this land
for the hardy fight.
Five kings lay
on the field of battle,
in bloom of youth,
pierced with swords.
So seven eke
of the earls of Anlaf;
and of the ship's-crew
unnumber'd crowds.
There was dispersed
the little band
of hardy Scots,
the dread of northern hordes;
urged to the noisy deep
by unrelenting fate!
The king of the fleet
with his slender craft
escaped with his life
on the felon flood; --
and so too Constantine,
the valiant chief,
returned to the north
in hasty flight.
The hoary Hildrinc
cared not to boast
among his kindred.
Here was his remnant
of relations and friends
slain with the sword
in the crowded fight.
His son too he left
on the field of battle,
mangled with wounds,
young at the fight.
The fair-hair'd youth
had no reason to boast
of the slaughtering strife.
Nor old Inwood
and Anlaf the more
with the wrecks of their army
could laugh and say,
that they on the field
of stern command
better workmen were,
in the conflict of banners,
the clash of spears,
the meeting of heroes,
and the rustling of weapons,
which they on the field
of slaughter played
with the sons of Edward.
The northmen sail'd
in their nailed ships,
a dreary remnant,
on the roaring sea;
over deep water
Dublin they sought,
and Ireland's shores,
in great disgrace.
Such then the brothers
both together
king and atheling,
sought their country,
West-Saxon land,
in right triumphant.
They left behind them
raw to devour,
the sallow kite,
the swarthy raven
with horny nib,
and the hoarse vultur,
with the eagle swift
to consume his prey;
the greedy gos-hawk,
and that grey beast
the wolf of the weald.
No slaughter yet
was greater made
e'er in this island,
of people slain,
before this same,
with the edge of the sword;
as the books inform us
of the old historians;
since hither came
from the eastern shores
the Angles and Saxons,
over the broad sea,
and Britain sought, --
fierce battle-smiths,
o'ercame the Welsh,
most valiant earls,
and gained the land.

A.D. 941. This year King Athelstan died in Glocester, on the
sixth day before the calends of November, about forty-one
winters, bating one night, from the time when King Alfred died.
And Edmund Atheling took to the kingdom. He was then eighteen
years old. King Athelstan reigned fourteen years and ten weeks.
This year the Northumbrians abandoned their allegiance, and chose
Anlaf of Ireland for their king.

((A.D. 941. This year King Edmund received King Anlaf at
baptism; and that same year, a good long space after, he received
King Reginald at the bishop's hands.))

A.D. 942. Here
Edmund king,
of Angles lord,
protector of friends,
author and framer
of direful deeds.
o'erran with speed
the Mercian land.
whete'er the course
of Whitwell-spring,
or Humber deep,
The broad brim-stream,
divides five towns.
Leicester and Lincoln.
Nottingham and Stamford,
and Derby eke.
In thraldom long
to Norman Danes
they bowed through need,
and dragged the chains
of heathen men;
till, to his glory,
great Edward's heir,
Edmund the king,
refuge of warriors,
their fetters broke.

A.D. 943. This year Anlaf stormed Tamworth; and much slaughter
was made on either hand; but the Danes had the victory, and led
away with them much plunder. There was Wulfrun taken, in the
spoiling of the town. This year King Edmund beset King Anlaf and
Archbishop Wulfstan in Leicester; and he might have conquered
them, were it not that they burst out of the town in the night.
After this Anlaf obtained the friendship of King Edmund, and King
Edmund then received King Anlaf in baptism; and he made him royal
presents. And the same year, after some interval, he received
King Reynold at episcopal hands. This year also died King Anlaf.

A.D. 944. This year King Edmund reduced all the land of the
Northumbrians to his dominion, and expelled two kings, Anlaf the
son of Sihtric, and Reynold the son of Guthferth.

A.D. 945. This year King Edmund overran all Cumberland; and let
it all to Malcolm king of the Scots, on the condition that he
became his ally, both by sea and land.

A.D. 946. This year King Edmund died, on St. Augustine's mass
day. That was widely known, how he ended his days: -- that Leof
stabbed him at Pucklechurch. And Ethelfleda of Damerham,
daughter of Alderman Elgar, was then his queen. And he reigned
six years and a half: and then succeeded to the kingdom Edred
Atheling his brother, who soon after reduced all the land of the
Northumbrians to his dominion; and the Scots gave him oaths, that
they would do all that he desired.

A.D. 947. This year came King Edred to Tadden's-cliff; and there
Archbishop Wulfstan and all the council of the Northumbrians
bound themselves to an allegiance with the king. And within a
little space they abandoned all, both allegiance and oaths.

A.D. 948. This year King Edred overran all Northumberland;
because they had taken Eric for their king; and in the pursuit of
plunder was that large minster at Rippon set on fire, which St.
Wilferth built. As the king returned homeward, he overtook the
enemy at York; but his main army was behind at Chesterford.
There was great slaughter made; and the king was so wroth, that
he would fain return with his force, and lay waste the land
withal; but when the council of the Northumbrians understood
that, they then abandoned Eric, and compromised the deed with
King Edred.

A.D. 949. This year came Anlaf Curran to the land of the

A.D. 951. This year died Elfeah, Bishop of Winchester, on St.
Gregory's mass day.

A.D. 952. This year the Northumbrians expelled King Anlaf, and
received Eric the son of Harold. This year also King Edred
ordered Archbishop Wulfstan to be brought into prison at
Jedburgh; because he was oft bewrayed before the king: and the
same year the king ordered a great slaughter to be made in the
town of Thetford, in revenge of the abbot, whom they had formerly

A.D. 954. This year the Northumbrians expelled Eric; and King
Edred took to the government of the Northumbrians. This year
also Archbishop Wulfstan received a bishopric again at

A.D. 955. This year died King Edred, on St. Clement's mass day,
at Frome.(41) He reigned nine years and a half; and he rests in
the old minster. Then succeeded Edwy, the son of King Edmund, to
the government of the West-Saxons; and Edgar Atheling, his
brother, succeeded to the government of the Mercians. They were
the sons of King Edmund and of St. Elfgiva.

((A.D. 955. And Edwy succeeded to the kingdom of the West-
Saxons, and Edgar his brother succeeded to the kingdom of the
Mercians: and they were the sons of King Edmund and of S.

A.D. 956. This year died Wulfstan, Archbishop of York, on the
seventeenth day before the calends of January; and he was buried
at Oundle; and in the same year was Abbot Dunstan driven out of
this land over sea.

A.D. 958. This year Archbishop Oda separated King Edwy and
Elfgiva; because they were too nearly related.

A.D. 959. This year died King Edwy, on the calends of October;
and Edgar his brother took to the government of the West-Saxons,
Mercians, and Northumbrians. He was then sixteen years old. It
was in this year he sent after St. Dunstan, and gave him the
bishopric of Worcester; and afterwards the bishopric of London.
In his days
it prosper'd well;
and God him gave,
that he dwelt in peace
the while that he lived.
Whate'er he did,
whate'er he plan'd,
he earn'd his thrift.
He also rear'd
God's glory wide,
and God's law lov'd,
with peace to man,
above the kings
that went before
in man's remembrance.
God so him sped,
that kings and earls
to all his claims
submissive bow'd;
and to his will
without a blow
he wielded all
as pleased himself.
Esteem'd he was
both far and wide
in distant lands;
because he prized
the name of God,
and God's law traced,
God's glory rear'd,
both far and wide,
on every side.
Wisely he sought
in council oft
his people's good,
before his God,
before the world.
One misdeed he did,
too much however,
that foreign tastes
he loved too much;
and heathen modes
into this land
he brought too fast;
outlandish men
hither enticed;
and to this earth
attracted crowds
of vicious men.
But God him grant,
that his good deeds
be weightier far
than his misdeeds,
to his soul's redemption
on the judgment-day.

A.D. 961. This year departed Odo, the good archbishop, and St.
Dunstan took to the archbishopric. This year also died Elfgar, a
relative of the king, in Devonshire; and his body lies at Wilton:
and King Sifferth killed himself; and his body lies at Wimborn.
This year there was a very great pestilence; when the great fever
was in London; and St. Paul's minster was consumed with fire, and
in the same year was afterwards restored. In this year Athelmod.
the masspriest, went to Rome, and there died on the eighteenth
before the calends of September.

A.D. 963. This year died Wulfstan, the deacon, on Childermass-
day; (42) and afterwards died Gyric, the mass-priest. In the
same year took Abbot Athelwold to the bishopric of Winchester;
and he was consecrated on the vigil of St. Andrew, which happened
on a Sunday. On the second year after he was consecrated, he
made many minsters; and drove out the clerks (43) from the
bishopric, because they would hold no rule, and set monks
therein. He made there two abbacies; one of monks, another of
nuns. That was all within Winchester. Then came he afterwards
to King Edgar, and requested that he would give him all the
minsters that heathen men had before destroyed; for that he would
renew them. This the king cheerfully granted; and the bishop
came then first to Ely, where St. Etheldritha lies, and ordered
the minster to be repaired; which he gave to a monk of his, whose
name was Britnoth, whom he consecrated abbot: and there he set
monks to serve God, where formerly were nuns. He then bought
many villages of the king, and made it very rich. Afterwards
came Bishop Athelwold to the minster called Medhamsted, which was
formerly ruined by heathen folk; but he found there nothing but
old walls, and wild woods. In the old walls at length he found
hid writings which Abbot Hedda had formerly written; -- how King
Wulfhere and Ethelred his brother had wrought it, and how they
freed it against king and against bishop, and against all worldly
service; and how Pope Agatho confirmed it with his writ, as also
Archbishop Deusdedit. He then ordered the minster to be rebuilt;
and set there an abbot, who was called Aldulf; and made monks,
where before was nothing. He then came to the king, and let him
look at the writings which before were found; and the king then
answered and said: "I Edgar grant and give to-day, before God and
before Archbishop Dunstan, freedom to St. Peter's minster at
Medhamsted, from king and from bishop; and all the thorps that
thereto lie; that is, Eastfield, and Dodthorp, and Eye, and
Paston. And so I free it, that no bishop have any jurisdiction
there, but the abbot of the minster alone. And I give the town
called Oundle, with all that thereto lieth, called Eyot-hundred,
with market and toll; so freely, that neither king, nor bishop,
nor earl, nor sheriff, have there any jurisdiction; nor any man
but the abbot alone, and whom he may set thereto. And I give to
Christ and St. Peter, and that too with the advice of Bishop
Athelwold, these lands; -- that is, Barrow, Warmington, Ashton,
Kettering, Castor, Eylesworth, Walton, Witherington, Eye, Thorp,
and a minster at Stamford. These lands and al the others that
belong to the minster I bequeath clear; that is, with sack and
sock, toll and team, and infangthief; these privileges and all
others bequeath I clear to Christ and St. Peter. And I give the
two parts of Whittlesey-mere, with waters and with wears and
fens; and so through Meerlade along to the water that is called
Nen; and so eastward to Kingsdelf. And I will that there be a
market in the town itself, and that no other be betwixt Stamford
and Huntingdon. And I will that thus be given the toll; --
first, from Whittlesey-mere to the king's toll of Norman-cross
hundred; then backward again from Whittlesey-mere through
Meerlade along to the Nen, and as that river runs to Crowland;
and from Crowland to Must, and from Must to Kingsdelf and to
Whittlesey-mere. And I will that all the freedom, and all the
privileges, that my predecessors gave, should remain; and I write
and confirm this with the rood-token of Christ." (+) -- Then
answered Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and said: "I
grant, that all the things that here are given and spoken, and
all the things that thy predecessors and mine have given, shall
remain firm; and whosoever breaketh it, then give I him God's
curse, and that of all saints, and of all hooded heads, and mine,
unless he come to repentance. And I give expressly to St. Peter
my mass-hackle, and my stole, and my reef, to serve Christ." "I
Oswald, Archbishop of York, confirm all these words through the
holy rood on which Christ was crucified." (+) "I Bishop
Athelwold bless all that maintain this, and I excommunicate all
that break it, unless they come to repentance." -- Here was
Bishop Ellstan, Bishop Athulf, and Abbot Eskwy, and Abbot Osgar,
and Abbot Ethelgar, and Alderman Elfere; .Alderman Ethelwin,
Britnoth and Oslac aldermen, and many other rich men; and all
confirmed it and subscribed it with the cross of Christ. (+)
This was done in the year after our Lord's Nativity 972, the
sixteenth year of this king. Then bought the Abbot Aldulf lands
rich and many, and much endowed the minster withal; and was there
until Oswald, Archbishop of York, was dead; and then he was
chosen to be archbishop. Soon after another abbot was chosen of
the same monastery, whose name was Kenulf, who was afterwards
Bishop of Winchester. He first made the wall about the minster,
and gave it then the name of Peterborough, which before was
Medhamsted. He was there till he was appointed Bishop of
Winchester, when another abbot was chosen of the same monastery,
whose name was Elfsy, who continued abbot fifty winters
afterwards. It was he who took up St. Kyneburga and St.
Kyneswitha, that lay at Castor, and St. Tibba, that lay at
Ryhall; and brought them to Peterborough, and offered them all to
St. Peter in one day, and preserved them all the while he was

((A.D. 963. This year, by King Edgar, St. Ethelwold was chosen
to the bishoprick at Winchester. And the Archbishop of
Canterbury, St. Dunstan, consecrated him bishop on the first
Sunday of Advent; that was on the third before the kalends of

A.D. 964. This year drove King Edgar the priests of Winchester
out of the old minster, and also out of the new minster; and from
Chertsey; and from Milton; and replaced them with monks. And he
appointed Ethelgar abbot to the new minster, and Ordbert to
Chertsey, and Cyneward to Milton.

((A.D. 964. This year were the canons driven out of the Old-
minster by King Edgar, and also from the New-minster, and from
Chertsey and from Milton; and he appointed thereto monks and
abbots: to the New-minster Ethelgar, to Chertsey Ordbert, to
Milton Cyneward.))

A.D. 965. This year King Edgar took Elfrida for his queen, who
was daughter of Alderman Ordgar.

A.D. 966. This year Thored, the son of Gunner, plundered
Westmorland; and the same year Oslac took to the aldermanship.

A.D. 969. This year King Edgar ordered all Thanet-land to be

A.D. 970. This year died Archbishop Oskytel; who was first
consecrated diocesan bishop at Dorchester, and afterwards it was
by the consent of King Edred and all his council that he was
consecrated Archbishop of York. He was bishop two and twenty
winters; and he died on Alhallow-mas night, ten nights before
Martinmas, at Thame. Abbot Thurkytel, his relative, carried the
bishop's body to Bedford, because he was the abbot there at that

A.D. 971. This year died Edmund Atheling, and his body lies at

((A.D. 972. This year Edgar the etheling was consecrated king at
Bath, on Pentecost's mass-day, on the fifth before the ides of
May, the thirteenth year since he had obtained the kingdom; and
he was then one less than thirty years of age. And soon after
that, the king led all his ship-forces to Chester; and there came
to meet him six kings, and they all plighted their troth to him,
that they would be his fellow-workers by sea and by land.))

A.D. 973. Here was Edgar,
of Angles lord,
with courtly pomp
hallow'd to king
at Akemancester,
the ancient city;
whose modern sons,
dwelling therein,
have named her BATH.
Much bliss was there
by all enjoyed
on that happy day,
named Pentecost
by men below.
A crowd of priests,
a throng of monks,
I understand,
in counsel sage,
were gather'd there.
Then were agone
ten hundred winters
of number'd years
from the birth of Christ,
the lofty king,
guardian of light,
save that thereto
there yet was left
of winter-tale,
as writings say,
seven and twenty.
So near had run
of the lord of triumphs
a thousand years,
when this was done.
Nine and twenty
hard winters there
of irksome deeds
had Edmund's son
seen in the world,
when this took place,
and on the thirtieth
was hallow'd king. (43)
Soon after this the king led all his marine force to Chester; and
there came to meet him six kings; and they all covenanted with
him, that they would be his allies by sea and by land.

A.D. 975. Here ended
his earthly dreams
Edgar, of Angles king;
chose him other light,
serene and lovely,
spurning this frail abode,
a life that mortals
here call lean
he quitted with disdain.
July the month,
by all agreed
in this our land,
whoever were
in chronic lore
correctly taught;
the day the eighth,
when Edgar young,
rewarder of heroes,
his life -- his throne -- resigned.
Edward his son,
unwaxen child,
of earls the prince,
succeeded then
to England's throne.
Of royal race
ten nights before
departed hence
Cyneward the good --
prelate of manners mild.
Well known to me
in Mercia then,
how low on earth
God's glory fell
on every side:
chaced from the land,
his servants fled, --
their wisdom scorned;
much grief to him
whose bosom glow'd
with fervent love
of great Creation's Lord!
Neglected then
the God of wonders,
victor of victors,
monarch of heaven, --
his laws by man transgressed!
Then too was driv'n
Oslac beloved
an exile far
from his native land
over the rolling waves, --
over the ganet-bath,
over the water-throng,
the abode of the whale, --
fair-hair'd hero,
wise and eloquent,
of home bereft!
Then too was seen,
high in the heavens,
the star on his station,
that far and wide
wise men call --
lovers of truth
and heav'nly lore --
"cometa" by name.
Widely was spread
God's vengeance then
throughout the land,
and famine scour'd the hills.
May heaven's guardian,
the glory of angels,
avert these ills,
and give us bliss again;
that bliss to all
abundance yields
from earth's choice fruits,
throughout this happy isle. (45)

((A.D. 975. The eighth before the ides of July.
Here Edgar died,
ruler of Angles,
West-Saxons' joy,
and Mercians' protector.
Known was it widely
throughout many nations.
"Thaet" offspring of Edmund,
o'er the ganet's-bath,
honoured far,
Kings him widely
bowed to the king,
as was his due by kind.
No fleet was so daring,
nor army so strong,
that 'mid the English nation
took from him aught,
the while that the noble king
ruled on his throne.
And this year Edward, Edgar's son, succeeded to the kingdom; and
then soon, in the same year, during harvest, appeared "cometa"
the star; and then came in the following year a very great
famine, and very manifold commotions among the English people.
In his days,
for his youth,
God's gainsayers
God's law broke;
Eldfere, ealdorman,
and others many;
and rule monastic quashed,
and minsters dissolved,
and monks drove out,
and God's servants put down,
whom Edgar, king, ordered erewhile
the holy bishop
Ethelwold to stablish;
and widows they plundered,
many times and oft:
and many unrighteousnesses,
and evil unjust-deeds
arose up afterwards:
and ever after that
it greatly grew in evil.
And at that rime, also, was Oslac the great earl banished from

A.D. 976. This year was the great famine in England.

A.D. 977. This year was that great council at Kirtlington, (46)
after Easter; and there died Bishop Sideman a sudden death, on
the eleventh day before the calends of May. He was Bishop of
Devonshire; and he wished that his resting-place should be at
Crediton, his episcopal residence; but King Edward and Archbishop
Dunstan ordered men to carry him to St. Mary's minster that is at
Abingdon. And they did so; and he is moreover honourably buried
on the north side in St. Paul's porch.

A.D. 978. This year all the oldest counsellors of England fell at
Calne from an upper floor; but the holy Archbishop Dunstan stood
alone upon a beam. Some were dreadfully bruised: and some did
not escape with life. This year was King Edward slain, at
eventide, at Corfe-gate, on the fifteenth day before the calends
of April. And he was buried at Wareham without any royal honour.
No worse deed than this was ever done by the English nation since
they first sought the land of Britain. Men murdered him but God
has magnified him. He was in life an earthly king -- he is now
after death a heavenly saint. Him would not his earthly
relatives avenge -- but his heavenly father has avenged him
amply. The earthly homicides would wipe out his memory from the
earth -- but the avenger above has spread his memory abroad in
heaven and in earth. Those, Who would not before bow to his
living body, now bow on their knees to His dead bones. Now we
may conclude, that the wisdom of men, and their meditations, and
their counsels, are as nought against the appointment of God. In
this same year succeeded Ethelred Etheling, his brother, to the
government; and he was afterwards very readily, and with great
joy to the counsellors of England, consecrated king at Kingston.
In the same year also died Alfwold, who was Bishop of
Dorsetshire, and whose body lieth in the minster at Sherborn.

A.D. 979. In this year was Ethelred consecrated king, on the
Sunday fortnight after Easter, at Kingston. And there were at
his consecration two archbishops, and ten diocesan bishops. This
same year was seen a bloody welkin oft-times in the likeness of
fire; and that was most apparent at midnight, and so in misty
beams was shown; but when it began to dawn, then it glided away.

((A.D. 979. This year was King Edward slain at even-tide, at
Corfe-gate, on the fifteenth before the kalends of April, and
then was he buried at Wareham, without any kind of kingly
There has not been 'mid Angles
a worse deed done
than this was,
since they first
Britain-land sought.
Men him murdered,
but God him glorified.
He was in life
an earthly king;
he is now after death
a heavenly saint.
Him would not his earthly
kinsmen avenge,
but him hath his heavenly Father
greatly avenged.
The earthly murderers
would his memory
on earth blot out,
but the lofty Avenger
hath his memory
in the heavens
and on earth wide-spread.
They who would not erewhile
to his living
body bow down,
they now humbly
on knees bend
to his dead bones.
Now we may understand
that men's wisdom
and their devices,
and their councils,
are like nought
'gainst God's resolves.
This year Ethelred succeeded to the kingdom; and he was very
quickly after that, with much joy of the English witan,
consecrated king at Kingston.))

A.D. 980. In this year was Ethelgar consecrated bishop, on the
sixth day before the nones of May, to the bishopric of Selsey;
and in the same year was Southampton plundered by a pirate-army,
and most of the population slain or imprisoned. And the same
year was the Isle of Thanet overrun, and the county of Chester
was plundered by the pirate-army of the North. In this year
Alderman Alfere fetched the body of the holy King Edward at
Wareham, and carried him with great solemnity to Shaftsbury.

A.D. 981. In this year was St. Petroc's-stow plundered; and in
the same year was much harm done everywhere by the sea-coast,
both upon Devonshire and Wales. And in the same year died
Elfstan, Bishop of Wiltshire; and his body lieth in the minster
at Abingdon; and Wulfgar then succeeded to the bishopric. The
same year died Womare, Abbot of Ghent.

((A.D. 981. This year came first the seven ships, and ravaged

A.D. 982. In this year came up in Dorsetshire three ships of the
pirates, and plundered in Portland. The same year London was
burned. In the same year also died two aldermen, Ethelmer in
Hampshire, and Edwin in Sussex. Ethelmer's body lieth in
Winchester, at New-minster, and Edwin's in the minster at
Abingdon. The same year died two abbesses in Dorsetshire;
Herelufa at Shaftsbury, and Wulfwina at Wareham. The same year
went Otho, emperor of the Romans, into Greece; and there met he a
great army of the Saracens, who came up from the sea, and would
have proceeded forthwith to plunder the Christian folk; but the
emperor fought with them. And there was much slaughter made on
either side, but the emperor gained the field of battle. He was
there, however, much harassed, ere he returned thence; and as he
went homeward, his brother's son died, who was also called Otho;
and he was the son of Leodulf Atheling. This Leodulf was the son
of Otho the Elder and of the daughter of King Edward.

A.D. 983. This year died Alderman Alfere, and Alfric succeeded
to the same eldership; and Pope Benedict also died.

A.D. 984. This year died the benevolent Bishop of Winchester,
Athelwold, father of monks; and the consecration of the following
bishop, Elfheah, who by another name was called Godwin, was on
the fourteenth day before the calends of November; and he took
his seat on the episcopal bench on the mass-day of the two
apostles Simon and Jude, at Winchester.

A.D. 985. This year was Alderman Alfric driven out of the land;
and in the same year was Edwin consecrated abbot of the minster
at Abingdon.

A.D. 986. This year the king invaded the bishopric of Rochester;
and this year came first the great murrain of cattle in England.

A.D. 987. This year was the port of Watchet plundered.

A.D. 988. This year was Goda, the thane of Devonshire, slain;
and a great number with him: and Dunstan, the holy archbishop,
departed this life, and sought a heavenly one. Bishop Ethelgar
succeeded him in the archbishopric; but he lived only a little
while after, namely, one year and three months.

A.D. 989. This year died Abbot Edwin, and Abbot Wulfgar
succeeded to the abbacy. Siric was this year invested
archbishop, and went afterwards to Rome after his pall.

A.D. 991. This year was Ipswich plundered; and very soon
afterwards was Alderman Britnoth (47) slain at Maldon. In this
same year it was resolved that tribute should be given, for the
first time, to the Danes, for the great terror they occasioned by
the sea-coast. That was first 10,000 pounds. The first who
advised this measure was Archbishop Siric.

A.D. 992. This year the blessed Archbishop Oswald departed this
life, and sought a heavenly one; and in the same year died
Alderman Ethelwin. Then the king and all his council resolved,
that all the ships that were of any account should be gathered
together at London; and the king committed the lead of the land-
force to Alderman Elfric, and Earl Thorod, and Bishop Elfstan,
and Bishop Escwy; that they should try if they could anywhere
without entrap the enemy. Then sent Alderman Elfric, and gave
warning to the enemy; and on the night preceding the day of
battle he sculked away from the army, to his great disgrace. The
enemy then escaped; except the crew of one ship, who were slain
on the spot. Then met the enemy the ships from East-Anglia, and
from London; and there a great slaughter was made, and they took
the ship in which was the alderman, all armed and rigged. Then,
after the death of Archbishop Oswald, succeeded Aldulf, Abbot of
Peterborough, to the sees of York and of Worcester; and Kenulf to
the abbacy of Peterborough.

((A.D. 992. This year Oswald the blessed archbishop died, and
Abbot Eadulf succeeded to York and to Worcester. And this year
the king and all his witan decreed that all the ships which were
worth anything should be gathered together at London, in order
that they might try if they could anywhere betrap the army from
without. But Aelfric the ealdorman, one of those in whom the
king had most confidence, directed the army to be warned; and in
the night, as they should on the morrow have joined battle, the
selfsame Aelfric fled from the forces; and then the army

A.D. 993. This year came Anlaf with three and ninety ships to
Staines, which he plundered without, and went thence to Sandwich.
Thence to Ipswich, which he laid waste; and so to Maidon, where
Alderman Britnoth came against him with his force, and fought
with him; and there they slew the alderman, and gained the field
of battle; whereupon peace was made with him, and the king
received him afterwards at episcopal hands by the advice of
Siric, Bishop of Canterbury, and Elfeah of Winchester. This year
was Bamborough destroyed, and much spoil was there taken.
Afterwards came the army to the mouth of the Humber; and there
did much evil both in Lindsey and in Northumbria. Then was
collected a great force; but when the armies were to engage, then
the generals first commenced a flight; namely, Frene and Godwin
and Frithgist. In this same year the king ordered Elfgar, son of
Alderman Elfric, to be punished with blindness.

((A.D. 993. In this year came Olave with ninety-three ships to
Staines, and ravaged there about, and then went thence to
Sandwich, and so thence to Ipswich, and that all overran; and so
to Maldon. And there Britnoth the ealdorman came against them
with his forces, and fought against them: and they there slew the
ealdorman, and had possession of the place of carnage. And after
that peace was made with them; and him (Anlaf) the king
afterwards received at the bishop's hands, through the
instruction of Siric, bishop of the Kentish-men, and of Aelphege
of Winchester.))

A.D. 994. This year died Archbishop Siric: and Elfric, Bishop of
Wiltshire, was chosen on Easter-day, at Amesbury, by King
Ethelred and all his council. This year came Anlaf and Sweyne to
London, on the Nativity of St. Mary, with four and ninety-ships.
And they closely besieged the city, and would fain have set it on
fire; but they sustained more harm and evil than they ever
supposed that any citizens could inflict on them. The holy
mother of God on that day in her mercy considered the citizens,
and ridded them of their enemies. Thence they advanced, and
wrought the greatest evil that ever any army could do, in burning
and plundering and manslaughter, not only on the sea-coast in
Essex, but in Kent and in Sussex and in Hampshire. Next they
took horse, and rode as wide as they would, and committed
unspeakable evil. Then resolved the king and his council to send
to them, and offer them tribute and provision, on condition that
they desisted from plunder. The terms they accepted; and the
whole army came to Southampton, and there fixed their winter-
quarters; where they were fed by all the subjects of the West-
Saxon kingdom. And they gave them 16,000 pounds in money. Then
sent the king; after King Anlaf Bishop Elfeah and Alderman
Ethelwerd; (48) and, hostages being left with the ships, they led
Anlaf with great pomp to the king at Andover. And King Ethelred
received him at episcopal hands, and honoured him with royal
presents. In return Anlaf promised, as he also performed, that
he never again would come in a hostile manner to England.

A.D. 995. This year appeared the comet-star.

A.D. 996. This year was Elfric consecrated archbishop at Christ
church. (49)

A.D. 997. This year went the army about Devonshire into Severn-
mouth, and equally plundered the people of Cornwall, North-Wales,
(50) and Devon. Then went they up at Watchet, and there much
evil wrought in burning and manslaughter. Afterwards they
coasted back about Penwithstert on the south side, and, turning
into the mouth of the Tamer, went up till they came to Liddyford,
burning and slaying everything that they met. Moreover, Ordulf's
minster at Tavistock they burned to the ground, and brought to
their ships incalculable plunder. This year Archbishop Elfric
went to Rome after his staff.

A.D. 998. This year coasted the army back eastward into the
mouth of the Frome, and went up everywhere, as widely as they
would, into Dorsetshire. Often was an army collected against
them; but, as soon as they were about to come together, then were
they ever through something or other put to flight, and their
enemies always in the end had the victory. Another time they lay
in the Isle of Wight, and fed themselves meanwhile from Hampshire
and Sussex.

A.D. 999. This year came the army about again into the Thames,
and went up thence along the Medway to Rochester; where the
Kentish army came against them, and encountered them in a close
engagement; but, alas! they too soon yielded and fled; because
they had not the aid that they should have had. The Danes
therefore occupied the field of battle, and, taking horse, they
rode as wide as they would, spoiling and overrunning nearly all
West-Kent. Then the king with his council determined to proceed
against them with sea and land forces; but as soon as the ships
were ready, then arose delay from day to day, which harassed the
miserable crew that lay on board; so that, always, the forwarder
it should have been, the later it was, from one time to another;
-- they still suffered the army of their enemies to increase; --
the Danes continually retreated from the sea-coast;-- and they
continually pursued them in vain. Thus in the end these
expeditions both by sea and land served no other purpose but to
vex the people, to waste their treasure, and to strengthen their
enemies. "

A.D. 1000. This year the king went into Cumberland, and nearly
laid waste the whole of it with his army, whilst his navy sailed
about Chester with the design of co-operating with his land-
forces; but, finding it impracticable, they ravaged Anglesey.
The hostile fleet was this summer turned towards the kingdom of

A.D. 1001. This year there was great commotion in England in
consequence of an invasion by the Danes, who spread terror and
devastation wheresoever they went, plundering and burning and
desolating the country with such rapidity, that they advanced in
one march as far as the town of Alton; where the people of
Hampshire came against them, and fought with them. There was
slain Ethelwerd, high-steward of the king, and Leofric of
Whitchurch, and Leofwin, high-steward of the king, and Wulfhere,
a bishop's thane, and Godwin of Worthy, son of Bishop Elfsy; and
of all the men who were engaged with them eighty-one. Of the
Danes there was slain a much greater number, though they remained
in possession of the field of battle. Thence they proceeded
westward, until they came into Devonshire; where Paley came to
meet them with the ships which he was able to collect; for he had
shaken off his allegiance to King Ethelred, against all the vows
of truth and fidelity which he had given him, as well as the
presents which the king had bestowed on him in houses and gold
and silver. And they burned Teignton, and also many other goodly
towns that we cannot name; and then peace was there concluded
with them. And they proceeded thence towards Exmouth, so that
they marched at once till they came to Pin-hoo; where Cole, high-
steward of the king, and Edsy, reve of the king, came against
them with the army that they could collect. But they were there
put to flight, and there were many slain, and the Danes had
possession of the field of battle. And the next morning they
burned the village of Pin-hoo, and of Clist, and also many goodly
towns that we cannot name. Then they returned eastward again,
till they came to the Isle of Wight. The next morning they
burned the town of Waltham, and many other small towns; soon
after which the people treated with them, and they made peace.

((A.D. 1001. This year the army came to Exmouth, and then went
up to the town, and there continued fighting stoutly; but they
were very strenuously resisted. Then went they through the land,
and did all as was their wont; destroyed and burnt. Then was
collected a vast force of the people of Devon and of the people
of Somerset, and they then came together at Pen. And so soon as
they joined battle, then the people gave way: and there they made
great slaughter, and then they rode over the land, and their last
incursion was ever worse than the one before: and then they
brought much booty with them to their ships. And thence they
went into the Isle of Wight, and there they roved about, even as
they themselves would, and nothing withstood them: nor any fleet
by sea durst meet them; nor land force either, went they ever so
far up. Then was it in every wise a heavy time, because they
never ceased from their evil doings.))

A.D. 1002. This year the king and his council agreed that
tribute should be given to the fleet, and peace made with them,
with the provision that they should desist from their mischief.
Then sent the king to the fleet Alderman Leofsy, who at the
king's word and his council made peace with them, on condition
that they received food and tribute; which they accepted, and a
tribute was paid of 24,000 pounds. In the meantime Alderman
Leofsy slew Eafy, high-steward of the king; and the king banished
him from the land. Then, in the same Lent, came the Lady Elfgive
Emma, Richard's daughter, to this land. And in the same summer
died Archbishop Eadulf; and also, in the same year the king gave
an order to slay all the Danes that were in England. This was
accordingly done on the mass-day of St. Brice; because it was
told the king, that they would beshrew him of his life, and
afterwards all his council, and then have his kingdom without any

A.D. 1003. This year was Exeter demolished, through the French
churl Hugh, whom the lady had appointed her steward there. And
the army destroyed the town withal, and took there much spoil.
In the same year came the army up into Wiltshire. Then was
collected a very great force, from Wiltshire and from Hampshire;
which was soon ready on their march against the enemy: and
Alderman Elfric should have led them on; but he brought forth his
old tricks, and as soon as they were so near, that either army
looked on the other, then he pretended sickness, and began to
retch, saying he was sick; and so betrayed the people that he
should have led: as it is said, "When the leader is sick the
whole army is hindered." When Sweyne saw that they were not
ready, and that they all retreated, then led he his army into
Wilton; and they plundered and burned the town. Then went he to
Sarum; and thence back to the sea, where he knew his ships were.

A.D. 1004. This year came Sweyne with his fleet to Norwich,
plundering and burning the whole town. Then Ulfkytel agreed with
the council in East-Anglia, that it were better to purchase peace
with the enemy, ere they did too much harm on the land; for that
they had come unawares, and he had not had time to gather his
force. Then, under the truce that should have been between them,
stole the army up from their ships, and bent their course to
Thetford. When Ulfkytel understood that, then sent he an order
to hew the ships in pieces; but they frustrated his design. Then
he gathered his forces, as secretly as he could. The enemy came
to Thetford within three weeks after they had plundered Norwich;
and, remaining there one night, they spoiled and burned the town;
but, in the morning, as they were proceeding to their ships, came
Ulfkytel with his army, and said that they must there come to
close quarters. And, accordingly, the two armies met together;
and much slaughter was made on both sides. There were many of
the veterans of the East-Angles slain; but, if the main army had
been there, the enemy had never returned to their ships. As they
said themselves, that they never met with worse hand-play in
England than Ulfkytel brought them.

A.D. 1005. This year died Archbishop Elfric; and Bishop Elfeah
succeeded him in the archbishopric. This year was the great
famine in England so severe that no man ere remembered such. The
fleet this year went from this land to Denmark, and took but a
short respite, before they came again.

A.D. 1006. This year Elfeah was consecrated Archbishop; Bishop
Britwald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire; Wulfgeat was deprived
of all his property; (51) Wulfeah and Ufgeat were deprived of
sight; Alderman Elfelm was slain; and Bishop Kenulf (52) departed
this life. Then, over midsummer, came the Danish fleet to
Sandwich, and did as they were wont; they barrowed and burned and
slew as they went. Then the king ordered out all the population
from Wessex and from Mercia; and they lay out all the harvest
under arms against the enemy; but it availed nothing more than it
had often done before. For all this the enemy went wheresoever
they would; and the expedition did the people more harm than
either any internal or external force could do. When winter
approached, then went the army home; and the enemy retired after
Martinmas to their quarters in the Isle of Wight, and provided
themselves everywhere there with what they wanted. Then, about
midwinter, they went to their ready farm, throughout Hampshire
into Berkshire, to Reading. And they did according to their
custom, -- they lighted their camp-beacons as they advanced.
Thence they marched to Wallingford, which they entirely
destroyed, and passed one night at Cholsey. They then turned
along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited better cheer;
for it was often said, that if they sought Cuckamsley, they would
never get to the sea. But they went another way homeward. Then
was their army collected at Kennet; and they came to battle
there, and soon put the English force to flight; and afterwards
carried their spoil to the sea. There might the people of
Winchester see the rank and iniquitous foe, as they passed by
their gates to the sea, fetching their meat and plunder over an
extent of fifty miles from sea. Then was the king gone over the
Thames into Shropshire; and there he fixed his abode during
midwinter. Meanwhile, so great was the fear of the enemy, that
no man could think or devise how to drive them from the land, or
hold this territory against them; for they had terribly marked
each shire in Wessex with fire and devastation. Then the king
began to consult seriously with his council, what they all
thought most advisable for defending this land, ere it was
utterly undone. Then advised the king and his council for the
advantage of all the nation, though they were all loth to do it,
that they needs must bribe the enemy with a tribute. The king
then sent to the army, and ordered it to be made known to them,
that his desire was, that there should be peace between them, and
that tribute and provision should be given them. And they
accepted the terms; and they were provisioned throughout England.

((A.D. 1006. This year Elphege was consecrated archbishop [of

A.D. 1007. In this year was the tribute paid to the hostile
army; that was, 30,000 pounds. In this year also was Edric
appointed alderman over all the kingdom of the Mercians. This
year went Bishop Elfeah to Rome after his pall.

A.D. 1008. This year bade the king that men should speedily
build ships over all England; that is, a man possessed of three
hundred and ten hides to provide on galley or skiff; and a man
possessed of eight hides only, to find a helmet and breastplate

A.D. 1009. This year were the ships ready, that we before spoke
about; and there were so many of them as never were in England
before, in any king's days, as books tell us. And they were all
transported together to Sandwich; that they should lie there, and
defend this land against any out-force. But we have not yet had
the prosperity and the honour, that the naval armament should be
useful to this land, any more than it often before was. It was
at this same time, or a little earlier, that Brihtric, brother of
Alderman Edric, bewrayed Wulnoth, the South-Saxon knight, father
of Earl Godwin, to the king; and he went into exile, and enticed
the navy, till he had with him twenty ships; with which he
plundered everywhere by the south coast, and wrought every kind
of mischief. When it was told the navy that they might easily
seize him, if they would look about them, then took Brihtric with
him eighty ships; and thought that he should acquire for himself
much reputation, by getting Wulnoth into his hands alive or dead.
But, whilst they were proceeding thitherward, there came such a
wind against them, as no man remembered before; which beat and
tossed the ships, and drove them aground; whereupon Wulnoth soon
came, and burned them. When this was known to the remaining
ships, where the king was, how the others fared, it was then as
if all were lost. The king went home, with the aldermen and the
nobility; and thus lightly did they forsake the ships; whilst the
men that were in them rowed them back to London. Thus lightly
did they suffer the labour of all the people to be

A.D. 1015. This year was the great council at Oxford; where
Alderman Edric betrayed Sigferth and Morcar, the eldest thanes
belonging to the Seven Towns. He allured them into his bower,
where they were shamefully slain. Then the king took all their
possessions, and ordered the widow of Sigferth to be secured, and
brought within Malmsbury. After a little interval, Edmund
Etheling went and seized her, against the king's will, and had
her to wife. Then, before the Nativity of St. Mary, went the
etheling west-north into the Five Towns, (58) and soon plundered
all the property of Sigferth and Morcar; and all the people
submitted to him. At the same time came King Knute to Sandwich,
and went soon all about Kent into Wessex, until he came to the
mouth of the Frome; and then plundered in Dorset, and in
Wiltshire, and in Somerset. King Ethelred, meanwhile, lay sick
at Corsham; and Alderman Edric collected an army there, and
Edmund the etheling in the north. When they came together, the
alderman designed to betray Edmund the etheling, but he could
not; whereupon they separated without an engagement, and sheered
off from their enemies. Alderman Edric then seduced forty ships
from the king, and submitted to Knute. The West-Saxons also
submitted, and gave hostages, and horsed the army. And he
continued there until midwinter.

A.D. 1016. This year came King Knute with a marine force of one
hundred and sixty ships, and Alderman Edric with him, over the
Thames into Mercia at Cricklade; whence they proceeded to
Warwickshire, during the middle of the winter, and plundered
therein, and burned, and slew all they met. Then began Edmund
the etheling to gather an army, which, when it was collected,
could avail him nothing, unless the king were there and they had
the assistance of the citizens of London. The expedition
therefore was frustrated, and each man betook himself home.
After this. an army was again ordered, under full penalties, that
every person, however distant, should go forth; and they sent to
the king in London, and besought him to come to meet the army
with the aid that he could collect. When they were all
assembled, it succeeded nothing better than it often did before;
and, when it was told the king, that those persons would betray
him who ought to assist him, then forsook he the army, and
returned again to London. Then rode Edmund the etheling to Earl
Utred in Northumbria; and every man supposed that they would
collect an army King Knute; but they went into Stafforddhire, and
to Shrewsbury, and to Chester; and they plundered on their parts,
and Knute on his. He went out through Buckinghamshire to
Bedfordshire; thence to Huntingdonshire, and so into
Northamptonshire along the fens to Stamford. Thence into
Lincolnshire. Thence to Nottinghamshire; and so into Northumbria
toward York. When Utred understood this, he ceased from
plundering, and hastened northward, and submitted for need, and
all the Northumbrians with him; but, though he gave hostages, he
was nevertheless slain by the advice of Alderman Edric, and
Thurkytel, the son of Nafan, with him. After this, King Knute
appointed Eric earl over Northumbria, as Utred was; and then went
southward another way, all by west, till the whole army came,
before Easter, to the ships. Meantime Edmund Etheling went to
London to his father: and after Easter went King Knute with all
his ships toward London; but it happened that King Ethelred died
ere the ships came. He ended his days on St. George's day;
having held his kingdom in much tribulation and difficulty as
long as his life continued. After his decease, all the peers
that were in London, and the citizens, chose Edmund king; who
bravely defended his kingdom while his time was. Then came the
ships to Greenwich, about the gang-days, and within a short
interval went to London; where they sunk a deep ditch on the
south side, and dragged their ships to the west side of the
bridge. Afterwards they trenched the city without, so that no
man could go in or out, and often fought against it: but the
citizens bravely withstood them. King Edmund had ere this gone
out, and invaded the West-Saxons, who all submitted to him; and
soon afterward he fought with the enemy at Pen near Gillingham.
A second battle he fought, after midsummer, at Sherston; where
much slaughter was made on either side, and the leaders
themselves came together in the fight. Alderman Edric and Aylmer
the darling were assisting the army against King Edmund. Then
collected he his force the third time, and went to London, all by
north of the Thames, and so out through Clayhanger, and relieved
the citizens, driving the enemy to their ships. It was within
two nights after that the king went over at Brentford; where he
fought with the enemy, and put them to flight: but there many of
the English were drowned, from their own carelessness; who went
before the main army with a design to plunder. After this the
king went into Wessex, and collected his army; but the enemy soon
returned to London, and beset the city without, and fought
strongly against it both by water and land. But the almighty God
delivered them. The enemy went afterward from London with their
ships into the Orwell; where they went up and proceeded into
Mercia, slaying and burning whatsoever they overtook, as their
custom is; and, having provided themselves with meat, they drove
their ships and their herds into the Medway. Then assembled King
Edmund the fourth time all the English nation, and forded over
the Thames at Brentford; whence he proceeded into Kent. The
enemy fled before him with their horses into the Isle of Shepey;
and the king slew as many of them as he could overtake. Alderman
Edric then went to meet the king at Aylesford; than which no
measure could be more ill-advised. The enemy, meanwhile,
returned into Essex, and advanced into Mercia, destroying all
that he overtook. When the king understood that the army was up,
then collected he the fifth time all the English nation, and went
behind them, and overtook them in Essex, on the down called
Assingdon; where they fiercely came together. Then did Alderman
Edric as he often did before -- he first began the flight with
the Maisevethians, and so betrayed his natural lord and all the
people of England. There had Knute the victory, though all
England fought against him! There was then slain Bishop Ednoth,
and Abbot Wulsy, and Alderman Elfric, and Alderman Godwin of
Lindsey, and Ulfkytel of East-Anglia, and Ethelward, the son of
Alderman Ethelsy (59). And all the nobility of the English
nation was there undone! After this fight went King Knute up
with his army into Glocestershire, where he heard say that King
Edmund was. Then advised Alderman Edric, and the counsellors
that were there assembled, that the kings should make peace with
each other, and produce hostages. Then both the kings met
together at Olney, south of Deerhurst, and became allies and
sworn brothers. There they confirmed their friendship both with
pledges and with oaths, and settled the pay of the army. With
this covenant they parted: King Edmund took to Wessex, and Knute
to Mercia and the northern district. The army then went to their
ships with the things they had taken; and the people of London
made peace with them, and purchased their security, whereupon
they brought their ships to London, and provided themselves
winter-quarters therein. On the feast of St. Andrew died King
Edmund; and he is buried with his grandfather Edgar at
Gastonbury. In the same year died Wulfgar, Abbot of Abingdon;
and Ethelsy took to the abbacy.

A.D. 1017. This year King Knute took to the whole government of
England, and divided it into four parts: Wessex for himself,
East-Anglia for Thurkyll, Mercia for Edric, Northumbria for Eric.
This year also was Alderman Edric slain at London, and Norman,
son of Alderman Leofwin, and Ethelward, son of Ethelmar the
Great, and Britric, son of Elfege of Devonshire. King Knute also
banished Edwy etheling, whom he afterwards ordered to be slain,
and Edwy, king of the churls; and before the calends of August
the king gave an order to fetch him the widow of the other king,
Ethelred, the daughter of Richard, to wife.

((A.D. 1017. This year Canute was chosen king.))

A.D. 1018. This year was the payment of the tribute over all
England; that was, altogether, two and seventy thousand pounds,
besides that which the citizens of London paid; and that was ten
thousand five hundred pounds. The army then went partly to
Denmark; and forty ships were left with King Knute. The Danes
and Angles were united at Oxford under Edgar's law; and this year
died Abbot Ethelsy at Abingdon, to whom Ethelwine succeeded.

A.D. 1019. This year went King Knute with nine ships to Denmark,
where he abode all the winter; and Archbishop Elfstan died this
year, who was also named Lifing. He was a very upright man both
before God and before the world.

((A.D. 1019. And this winter died Archbishop Elfstan [of
Canterbury]: he was named Living; and he was a very provident
man, both as to God and as to the world.))

A.D. 1020. This year came King Knute back to England; and there
was at Easter a great council at Cirencester, where Alderman
Ethelward was outlawed, and Edwy, king of the churls. This year
went the king to Assingdon; with Earl Thurkyll, and Archbishop
Wulfstan, and other bishops, and also abbots, and many monks with
them; and he ordered to be built there a minster of stone and
lime, for the souls of the men who were there slain, and gave it
to his own priest, whose name was Stigand; and they consecrated
the minster at Assingdon. And Ethelnoth the monk, who had been
dean at Christ's church, was the same year on the ides of
November consecrated Bishop of Christ's church by Archbishop

((A.D. 1020. And caused to be built there [Canterbury] a minster
of stone and lime, for the souls of the men who there were slain,
and gave it to one of his priests, whose name was Stigand.))

A.D. 1021. This year King Knute, at Martinmas, outlawed Earl
Thurkyll; and Bishop Elfgar, the abundant giver of alms, died in
the morning of Christmas day.

A.D. 1022. This year went King Knute out with his ships to the
Isle of Wight. And Bishop Ethelnoth went to Rome; where he was
received with much honour by Benedict the magnificent pope, who
with his own hand placed the pall upon him, and with great pomp
consecrated him archbishop, and blessed him, on the nones of
October. The archbishop on the self-same day with the same pall
performed mass, as the pope directed him, after which he was
magnificently entertained by the pope himself; and afterwards
with a full blessing proceeded homewards. Abbot Leofwine, who
had been unjustly expelled from Ely, was his companion; and he
cleared himself of everything, which, as the pope informed him,
had been laid to his charge, on the testimony of the archbishop
and of all the company that were with him.

((A.D. 1022. And afterwards with the pall he there [at Rome]
performed mass as the pope instructed him: and he feasted after
that with the pope; and afterwards went home with a full

A.D. 1023. This year returned King Knute to England; and
Thurkyll and he were reconciled. He committed Denmark and his
son to the care of Thurkyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son with
him to England. This year died Archbishop Wulfstan; and Elfric
succeeded him; and Archbishop Egelnoth blessed him in Canterbury.
This year King Knute in London, in St. Paul's minster, gave full
leave (60) to Archbishop Ethelnoth, Bishop Britwine, and all
God's servants that were with them, that they might take up from
the grave the archbishop, Saint Elphege. And they did so, on the
sixth day before the ides of June; and the illustrious king, and
the archbishop, and the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very
many others, both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy
corpse over the Thames to Southwark. And there they committed
the holy martyr to the archbishop and his companions; and they
with worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried him to Rochester.
There on the third day came the Lady Emma with her royal son
Hardacnute; and they all with much majesty, and bliss, and songs
of praise, carried the holy archbishop into Canterbury, and so
brought him gloriously into the church, on the third day before
the ides of June. Afterwards, on the eighth day, the seventeenth
before the calends of July, Archbishop Ethelnoth, and Bishop
Elfsy, and Bishop Britwine, and all they that were with them,
lodged the holy corpse of Saint Elphege on the north side of the
altar of Christ; to the praise of God, and to the glory of the
holy archbishop, and to the everlasting salvation of all those
who there his holy body daily seek with earnest heart and all
humility. May God Almighty have mercy on all Christian men
through the holy intercession of Elphege!

((A.D. 1023. And he caused St. Elphege's remains to be borne
from London to Canterbury.))

A.D. 1025. This year went King Knute to Denmark with a fleet to
the holm by the holy river; where against him came Ulf and Eglaf,
with a very large force both by land and sea, from Sweden. There
were very many men lost on the side of King Knute, both of Danish
and English; and the Swedes had possession of the field of

A.D. 1026. This year went Bishop Elfric to Rome, and received
the pall of Pope John on the second day before the ides of

A.D. 1028. This year went King Knute from England to Norway with
fifty ships manned with English thanes, and drove King Olave from
the land, which he entirely secured to himself.

A.D. 1029. This year King Knute returned home to England.

A.D. 1030. This year returned King Olave into Norway; but the
people gathered together against him, and fought against him; and
he was there slain, in Norway, by his own people, and was
afterwards canonised. Before this, in the same year, died Hacon
the doughty earl, at sea.

((A.D. 1030. This year came King Olave again into Norway, and
the people gathered against him, and fought against him; and he
was there slain.))

A.D. 1031. This year returned King Knute; and as soon as he came
to England he gave to Christ's church in Canterbury the haven of
Sandwich, and all the rights that arise therefrom, on either side
of the haven; so that when the tide is highest and fullest, and
there be a ship floating as near the land as possible, and there
be a man standing upon the ship with a taper-axe in his hand,
whithersoever the large taper-axe might be thrown out of the
ship, throughout all that land the ministers of Christ's church
should enjoy their rights. This year went King Knute to Rome;
and the same year, as soon as he returned home, he went to
Scotland; and Malcolm, king of the Scots, submitted to him, and
became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Jehmar; but he
held his allegiance a little while only. Robert, Earl of
Normandy, went this year to Jerusalem, where he died; and
William, who was afterwards King of England, succeeded to the
earldom, though he was a child.

A.D. 1032. This year appeared that wild fire, such as no man
ever remembered before, which did great damage in many places.
The same year died Elfsy, Bishop of Winchester; and Elfwin, the
king's priest, succeeded him.

A.D. 1033. This year died Bishop Merewhite in Somersetshire, who
is buried at Glastonbury; and Bishop Leofsy, whose body resteth
at Worcester, and to whose see Brihteh was promoted.

A.D. 1034. This year died Bishop Etheric, who lies at Ramsey.

A.D. 1035. This year died King Knute at Shaftesbury, on the
second day before the ides of November; and he is buried at
Winchester in the old minster. He was king over all England very
near twenty winters. Soon after his decease, there was a council
of all the nobles at Oxford; wherein Earl Leofric, and almost all
the thanes north of the Thames, and the naval men in London,
chose Harold to be governor of all England, for himself and his
brother Hardacnute, who was in Denmark. Earl Godwin, and all the
eldest men in Wessex, withstood it as long as they could; but
they could do nothing against it. It was then resolved that
Elfgiva, the mother of Hardacnute, should remain at Winchester
with the household of the king her son. They held all Wessex in
hand, and Earl Godwin was their chief man. Some men said of
Harold, that he was the son of King Knute and of Elfgive the
daughter of Alderman Elfelm; but it was thought very incredible
by many men. He was, nevertheless, full king over all England.
Harold himself said that he was the son of Knute and of Elfgive
the Hampshire lady; though it was not true; but he sent and
ordered to be taken from her all the best treasure that she could
not hold, which King Knute possessed; and she nevertheless abode
there continually within the city as long as she could.

A.D. 1036. This year came hither Alfred the innocent etheling,
son of King Ethelred, and wished to visit his mother, who abode
at Winchester: but Earl Godwin, and other men who had much power
in this land, did not suffer it; because such conduct was very
agreeable to Harold, though it was unjust.
Him did Godwin let,
and in prison set.
His friends, who did not fly,
they slew promiscuously.
And those they did not sell,
like slaughter'd cattle fell!
Whilst some they spared to bind,
only to wander blind!
Some ham-strung, helpless stood,
whilst others they pursued.
A deed more dreary none
in this our land was done,
since Englishmen gave place
to hordes of Danish race.
But repose we must
in God our trust,
that blithe as day
with Christ live they,
who guiltless died --
their country's pride!
The prince with courage met
each cruel evil yet;
till 'twas decreed,
they should him lead,
all bound, as he was then,
to Ely-bury fen.
But soon their royal prize
bereft they of his eyes!
Then to the monks they brought
their captive; where he sought
a refuge from his foes
till life's sad evening close.
His body ordered then
these good and holy men,
according to his worth,
low in the sacred earth,
to the steeple full-nigh,
in the south aile to lie
of the transept west --
his soul with Christ doth rest.

((A.D. 1036. This year died King Canute at Shaftesbury, and he
is buried at Winchester in the Old-minster: and he was king over
all England very nigh twenty years. And soon after his decease
there was a meeting of all the witan at Oxford; and Leofric, the
earl, and almost all the thanes north of the Thames, and the
"lithsmen" at London, chose Harold for chief of all England, him
and his brother Hardecanute who was in Denmark. And Godwin the
earl and all the chief men of Wessex withstood it as long as they
could; but they were unable to effect anything in opposition to
it. And then it was decreed that Elfgive, Hardecanute's mother,
should dwell at Winchester with the king's, her son's, house-
hold, and hold all Wessex in his power; and Godwin the earl was
their man. Some men said of Harold that he was son of King
Canute and of Elfgive, daughter of Elfelm the ealdorman, but it
seemed quite incredible to many men; and he was nevertheless full
king over all England.))

A.D. 1037. This year men chose Harold king over all; and forsook
Hardacnute, because he was too long in Denmark; and then drove
out his mother Elgiva, the relict of King Knute, without any
pity, against the raging winter! She, who was the mother of
Edward as well as of King Hardacnute, sought then the peace of
Baldwin by the south sea. Then came she to Bruges, beyond sea;
and Earl Baldwin well received her there; and he gave her a
habitation at Bruges, and protected her, and entertained her
there as long as she had need. Ere this in the same year died
Eafy, the excellent Dean of Evesham.

((A.D. 1037. This year was driven out Elfgive, King Canute's
relict; she was King Hardecanute's mother; and she then sought
the protection of Baldwin south of the sea, and he gave her a
dwelling in Bruges, and protected and kept her, the while that
she there was.))

A.D. 1038. This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on the
calends of November; and, within a little of this time, Bishop
Ethelric in Sussex, who prayed to God that he would not let him
live any time after his dear father Ethelnoth; and within seven
nights of this he also departed. Then, before Christmas, died
Bishop Brihteh in Worcestershire; and soon after this, Bishop
Elfric in East Anglia. Then succeeded Bishop Edsy to the
archbishopric, Grimkytel to the see of Sussex, and Bishop Lifing
to that of Worcester shire and Gloucestershire.

((A.D. 1038. This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on
the kalends of November, and a little after, Ethelric, bishop in
Sussex, and then before Christmas, Briteagus, Bishop in
Worcestershire, and soon after, Elfric, bishop in East-Anglia.))

A.D. 1039. This year happened the terrible wind; and Bishop
Britmar died at Lichfield. The Welsh slew Edwin. brother of Earl
Leofric, and Thurkil, and Elfget, and many good men with them.
This year also came Hardacnute to Bruges, where his mother was.

((A.D. 1039. This year King Harold died at Oxford, on the
sixteenth before the kalends of April, and he was buried at
Westminster. And he ruled England four years and sixteen weeks;
and in his days sixteen ships were retained in pay, at the rate
of eight marks for each rower, in like manner as had been before
done in the days of King Canute. And in this same year came King
Hardecanute to Sandwich, seven days before midsummer. And he was
soon acknowledged as well by English as by Danes; though his
advisers afterwards grievously requited it, when they decreed
that seventy-two ships should be retained in pay, at the rate of
eight marks for each rower. And in this same year the sester of
wheat went up to fifty-five pence, and even further.))

A.D. 1040. This year died King Harold at Oxford, on the
sixteenth before the calends of April; and he was buried at
Westminster. He governed England four years and sixteen weeks;
and in his days tribute was paid to sixteen ships, at the rate of
eight marks for each steersman, as was done before in King
Knute's days. The same year they sent after Hardacnute to
Bruges, supposing they did well; and he came hither to Sandwich
with sixty ships, seven nights before midsummer. He was soon
received both by the Angles and Danes, though his advisers
afterwards severely paid for it. They ordered a tribute for
sixty-two ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman.
Then were alienated from him all that before desired him; for he
framed nothing royal during his whole reign. He ordered the dead
Harold to be dragged up and thrown into a ditch. This year rose
the sester of wheat to fifty-five pence, and even further. This
year Archbishop Edsy went to Rome.

((A.D. 1040. This year was the tribute paid; that twenty-one
thousand pounds and ninety-nine pounds. And after that they paid
to thirty-two ships, eleven thousand and forty-eight pounds.
And, in this same year, came Edward, son of King Ethelred, hither
to land, from Weal-land; he was brother of King Hardecanute: they
were both sons of Elfgive; Emma, who was daughter of Earl

A.D. 1041. This year was the tribute paid to the army; that was,
21,099 pounds; and afterwards to thirty-two ships, 11,048 pounds.
This year also ordered Hardacnute to lay waste all
Worcestershire, on account of the two servants of his household,
who exacted the heavy tribute. That people slew them in the town
within the minster. Early in this same year came Edward, the son
of King Ethelred, hither to land, from Weal-land to Madron. He
was the brother of King Hardacnute, and had been driven from this
land for many years: but he was nevertheless sworn as king, and
abode in his brother's court while he lived. They were both sons
of Elfgive Emma, who was the daughter oœ Earl Richard. In this
year also Hardacnute betrayed Eadulf, under the mask of
friendship. He was also allied to him by marriage. This year
was Egelric consecrated Bishop of York, on the third day before
the ides of January.

((A.D. 1041. This year died King Hardecanute at Lambeth, on the
sixth before the ides of June: and he was king over all England
two years wanting ten days; and he is buried in the Old-minster
at Winchester with King Canute his father. And his mother, for
his soul, gave to the New-minster the head of St. Valentine the
martyr. And before he was buried, all people chose Edward for
king at London: may he hold it the while that God shall grant it
to him! And all that year was a very heavy time, in many things
and divers, as well in respect to ill seasons as to the fruits of
the earth. And so much cattle perished in the year as no man
before remembered, as well through various diseases as through
tempests. And in this same time died Elsinus, Abbot of
Peterborough; and then Arnwius the monk was chosen abbot, because
he was a very good man, and of great simplicity.))

A.D. 1042. This year died King Hardacnute at Lambeth, as he
stood drinking: he fell suddenly to the earth with a tremendous
struggle; but those who were nigh at hand took him up; and he
spoke not a word afterwards, but expired on the sixth day before
the ides of June. He was king over all England two years wanting
ten nights; and he is buried in the old minster at Winchester
with King Knute his father. And his mother for his soul gave to
the new minster the head of St. Valentine the Martyr: and ere he
was buried all people chose Edward for king in London. And they
received him as their king, as was natural; and he reigned as
long as God granted him. All that year was the season very
severe in many and various respects: both from the inclemency of
the weather, and the loss of the fruits of the earth. More
cattle died this year than any man ever remembered, either from
various diseases, or from the severity of the weather. At this
same time died Elfsinus, Abbot of Peterborough; and they chose
Arnwy, a monk, for their abbot; because he was a very good and
benevolent man.

A.D. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester,
early on Easter-day, with much pomp. Then was Easter on the
third day before the nones of April. Archbishop Edsy
consecrated him, and before all people well admonished him. And
Stigand the priest was consecrated bishop over the East Angles.
And this year, fourteen nights before the mass of St. Andrew, it
was advised the king, that he and Earl Leofric and Earl Godwin
and Earl Siward with their retinue, should ride from Gloucester
to Winchester unawares upon the lady; and they deprived her of
all the treasures that she had; which were immense; because she
was formerly very hard upon the king her son, and did less for
him than he wished before he was king, and also since: but they
suffered her to remain there afterwards. And soon after this the
king determined to invest all the land that his mother had in her
hands, and took from her all that she had in gold and in silver
and in numberless things; because she formerly held it too fast
against him. Soon after this Stigand was deprived of his
bishopric; and they took all that he had into their hands for the
king, because he was nighest the counsel of his mother; and she
acted as he advised, as men supposed.

((A.D. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester
on the first day of Easter. And this year, fourteen days before
Andrew's-mass, the king was advised to ride from Gloucester, and
Leofric the earl, and Godwin the earl, and Sigwarth [Siward] the
earl, with their followers, to Winchester, unawares upon the lady
[Emma]; and they bereaved her of all the treasures which she
possessed, they were not to be told, because before that she had
been very hard with the king her son; inasmuch as she had done
less for him than he would, before he was king, and also since:
and they suffered her after that to remain therein. This year
King Edward took the daughter [Edgitha] of Godwin the earl for
his wife. And in this same year died Bishop Brithwin, and he
held the bishopric thirty-eight years, that was the bishopric of
Sherborne, and Herman the king's priest succeeded to the
bishopric. And in this year Wulfric was hallowed Abbot of St.
Augustine's at Christmas, on Stephen's mass-day, by leave of the
king, and, on account of his great infirmity, of Abbot Elfstun.))

A.D. 1044. This year Archbishop Edsy resigned his see from
infirmity, and consecrated Siward, Abbot of Abingdon, bishop
thereto, with the permission and advice of the king and Earl
Godwin. It was known to few men else before it was done; because
the archbishop feared that some other man would either beg or buy
it, whom he might worse trust and oblige than him, if it were
known to many men. This year there was very great hunger over
all England, and corn so dear as no man remembered before; so
that the sester of wheat rose to sixty pence, and even further.
And this same year the king went out to Sandwich with thirty-five
ships; and Athelstan, the churchwarden, succeeded to the abbacy
of Abingdon, and Stigand returned to his bishopric. In the same
year also King Edward took to wife Edgitha, the daughter of Earl
Godwin, ten nights before Candlemas. And in the same year died
Britwold, Bishop of Wiltshire, on the tenth day before the
calends of May; which bishopric he held thirty-eight winters;
that was, the bishopric of Sherborn. And Herman, the king's
priest, succeeded to the bishopric. This year Wulfric was
consecrated Abbot of St. Augustine's, at Christmas, on the
mass-day of St. Stephen, by the king's leave and that of Abbot
Elfstan, by reason of his great infirmity.

((A.D. 1044. This year died Living, Bishop in Devonshire, and
Leoftic succeeded thereto; he was the king's priest. And in this
same year died Elfstan, Abbot of St. Augustine's, on the third
before the nones of July. And in this same year was outlawed
Osgod Clapa.))

A.D. 1045. This year died Elfward, Bishop of London, on the
eighth day before the calends of August. He was formerly Abbot
of Evesham, and well furthered that monastery the while that he
was there. He went then to Ramsey, and there resigned his life:
and Mannie was chosen abbot, being consecrated on the fourth day
before the ides of August. This year Gunnilda, a woman of rank,
a relative of King Knute, was driven out, and resided afterwards
at Bruges a long while, and then went to Denmark. King Edward
during the year collected a large fleet at Sandwich, through the
threatening of Magnus of Norway; but his contests with Sweyne in
Denmark prevented him from coming hither.

((A.D. 1045. This year died Grimkytel, Bishop in Sussex, and
Heca, the king's priest, succeeded thereto. And in this year
died Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, on the fourth before the
kalends of September; and Stigand, bishop to the north
[Flanders], succeeded thereto. And in the same year Sweyn the
earl went out to Baldwin's land [Of Elmham] to Bruges and abode
there all the winter; and then in summer he went out.))

A.D. 1046. This year died Lifting, the eloquent bishop, on the
tenth day before the calends of April. He had three bishoprics;
one in Devonshire, one in Cornwall, and another in
Worcestershire. Then succeeded Leofric, who was the king's
priest, to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop Aldred to
Worcestershire. This year died Elfwine, Bishop of Winchester, on
the fourth day before the calends of September; and Stigand,
Bishop of Norfolk, was raised to his see. Ere this, in the same
year, died Grimkytel, Bishop of Sussex; and he lies at
Christ-church, in Canterbury. And Heca, the' king's priest,
succeeded to the bishopric. Sweyne also sent hither, and
requested the aid of fifty ships against Magnus, king of the
Norwegians; but it was thought unwise by all the people, and it
was prevented, because that Magnus had a large navy: and he drove
Sweyne out, and with much slaughter won the land. The Danes then
gave him much money, and received him as king. The same year
Magnus died. The same year also Earl Sweyne went out to
Baldwin's land, to Bruges; and remained there all the winter. In
the summer he departed.

A.D. 1046. This year went Earl Sweyne into Wales; and Griffin,
king of the northern men with him; and hostages were delivered to
him. As he returned homeward, he ordered the Abbess of
Leominster to be fetched him; and he had her as long as he list,
after which he let her go home. In this same year was outlawed
Osgod Clapa, the master of horse, before midwinter. And in the
same year, after Candlemas, came the strong winter, with frost
and with snow, and with all kinds of bad weather; so that there
was no man then alive who could remember so severe a winter as
this was, both through loss of men and through loss of cattle;
yea, fowls and fishes through much cold and hunger perished.

((A.D. 1046. This year died Brithwin, bishop in Wiltshire, and
Herman was appointed to his see. In that year King Edward
gathered a large ship-force at Sandwich, on account of the
threatening of Magnus in Norway: but his and Sweyn's contention
in Denmark hindered his coming here. This year died Athelstan,
Abbot of Abingdon, and Sparhawk, monk of St. Edmund's-bury,
succeeded him. And in this same year died bishop Siward, and
Archbishop Eadsine again obtained the whole bishopric. And in
this same year Lothen and Irling came with twenty-five ships to
Sandwich, and there took unspeakable booty, in men, and in gold,
and in silver, so that no man knew how much it all was. And they
then went about Thanet, and would there do the like; but the
land's-folk strenuously withstood them, and denied them as well
landing as water; and thence utterly put them to flight. And
they betook themselves then into Essex, and there they ravaged,
and took men, and property, and whatsoever they might find. And
they betook themselves then east to Baldwine's land, and there
they sold what they had plundered; and after that went their way
east, whence they before had come. In this year was the great
synod at St. Remi's [Rheins]. Thereat was Leo the pope, and the
Archbishop of Burgundy [Lyons], and the Archbishop of Besancon,
and the Archbishop of Treves, and the Archbishop of Rheims; and
many men besides, both clergy and laity. And King Edward sent
thither Bishop Dudoc [Of Wells], and Wulfric, Abbot of St.
Augustine's, and Abbot Elfwin [Of Ramsey], that they might make
known to the king what should be there resolved on for
Christendom. And in this same year King Edward went out to
Sandwich with a great fleet. And Sweyn the earl, son of Godwin
the earl, came in to Bosham with seven ships; and he obtained the
king's protection, and he was promised that he should be held
worthy of everything which he before possessed. Then Harold the
earl, his brother, and Beorn the earl contended that he should
not be held worthy of any of the things which the king had
granted to them: but a protection of four days was appointed him
to go to his ships. Then befell it during this, that word came
to the king that hostile ships lay westward, and were ravaging.
Then went Godwin the earl west about with two of the king's
ships; the one commanded Harold the earl, and the other Tosty his
brother; and forty-two of the people's ships. Then Harold the
earl was removed from the king's ship which Harold the earl
before had commanded. Then went they west to Pevensey, and lay
there weather-bound. Upon this, after two days, then came Sweyn
the earl thither, and spoke with his father, and with Beorn the
earl, and begged of Beorn that he would go with him to the king
at Sandwich, and help him to the king's friendship: and he
granted it. Then went they as if they would go to the king.
Then whilst they were riding, then begged Sweyn of him that he
would go with him to his ships: saying that his seamen would
depart from him unless he should at the soonest come thither.
Then went they both where his ships lay. When they came thither,
then begged Sweyn the earl of him that he would go with him on
ship-board. He strenuously refused, so long as until his seamen
seized him, and threw him into the boat, and bound him, and rowed
to the ship, and put him there aboard. Then they hoisted up
their sails and ran west to Exmouth, and had him with them until
they slew him: and they took the body and buried it in a church.
And then his friends and litsmen came from London, and took him
up, and bore him to Winchester to the Old-minster, and he is
there buried with King Canute his uncle. And Sweyn went then
east to Baldwin's land, and sat down there all the winter at
Bruges, with his full protection. And in the same year died
Eadnoth [II.] bishop [Of Dorchester] of the north and Ulf was
made bishop.))

A.D. 1047. This year died Athelstan, Abbot of Abingdon, on the
fourth day before the calends of April; and Sparhawk, monk of St.
Edmundsbury, succeeded him. Easter day was then on the third day
before the nones of April; and there was over all England very
great loss of men this year also. The same year came to Sandwich
Lothen and Irling, with twenty-five ships, and plundered and took
incalculable spoil, in men, and in gold, and in silver, so that
no man wist what it all was; and went then about Thanet, and
would there have done the same; but the land-folk firmly
withstood, and resisted them both by land and sea, and thence put
them to flight withal. They betook themselves thence into Essex,
where they plundered and took men, and whatsoever they could
find, whence they departed eastward to Baldwin's land, and having
deposited the booty they had gained, they returned east to the
place whence they had come before.

((A.D. 1047. This year died Living the eloquent bishop, on the
tenth before the kalends of April, and he had three bishoprics;
one in Devonshire, and in Cornwall, and in Worcester. Then
Leofric (61) succeeded to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop
Aldred to Worcester. And in this year Osgod, the master of the
horse, was outlawed: and Magnus [King of Norway] won Denmark. In
this year there was a great council in London at mid-Lent, and
nine ships of lightermen were discharged, and five remained
behind. In this same year came Sweyn the earl into England. And
in this same year was the great synod at Rome, and King Edward
sent thither Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred; and they came
thither on Easter eve. And afterwards the pope held a synod at
Vercelli, and Bishop Ulf came thereto; and well nigh would they
have broken his staff, if he had not given very great gifts;
because he knew not how to do his duty so well as he should. And
in this year died Archbishop Eadsine, on the fourth before the
kalends of November.))

A.D. 1048. This year came Sweyne back to Denmark; and Harold,
the uncle of Magnus, went to Norway on the death of Magnus, and
the Northmen submitted to him. He sent an embassy of peace to
this land, as did also Sweyne from Denmark, requesting of King
Edward naval assistance to the amount at least of fifty ships;
but all the people resisted it. This year also there was an
earthquake, on the calends of May, in many places; at Worcester,
at Wick, and at Derby, and elsewhere wide throughout England;
with very great loss by disease of men and of cattle over all
England; and the wild fire in Derbyshire and elsewhere did much
harm. In the same year the enemy plundered Sandwich, and the
Isle of Wight, and slew the best men that were there; and King
Edward and the earls went out after them with their ships. The
same year Bishop Siward resigned his bishopric from infirmity,
and retired to Abingdon; upon which Archbishop Edsy resumed the
bishopric; and he died within eight weeks of this, on the tenth
day before the calends of November.

((A.D. 1048. This year was the severe winter: and this year died
Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, and Bishop Stigand was raised to his
see. And before that, in the same year, died Grinketel, Bishop
in Sussex, and Heca the priest succeeded to the bishopric. And
Sweyn also sent hither, begging assistance against Magnus, King
of Norway; that fifty ships should be sent to his aid. But it
seemed unadvisable to all people: and it was then hindered by
reason that Magnus had a great ship-force. And he then drove out
Sweyn, and with much man-slaying won the land: and the Danes paid
him much money and acknowledged him as king. And that same year
Magnus died. In this year King Edward appointed Robert, of
London, Archbishop of Canterbury, during Lent. And in the same
Lent he went to Rome after his pall: and the king gave the
bishopric of London to Sparhafoc, Abbot of Abingdon; and the king
gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop Rodulf, his kinsman. Then
came the archbishop from Rome one day before St. Peter's mass-
eve, and entered on his archiepiscopal see at Christ's Church on
St. Peter's mass-day; and soon after went to the king. Then came
Abbot Sparhafoc to him with the king's writ and seal, in order
that he should consecrate him Bishop of London. Then the
archbishop refused, and said that the pope had forbidden it him.
Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for that purpose, and
there desired episcopal ordination; and the archbishop constantly
refused him, and said that the pope had forbidden it him. Then
went the abbot to London, and occupied the bishopric which the
king before had granted him, with his full leave, all the summer
and the harvest. And then came Eustace [Earl of Boulogne] from
beyond sea soon after the bishop, and went to the king, and spoke
with him that which he then would, and went then homeward. When
he came to Canterbury, east, then took he refreshment there, and
his men, and went to Dover. When he was some mile or more, on
this side of Dover, then he put on his breast-plate, and so did
all his companions, and went to Dover. When they came thither,
then would they lodge themselves where they chose. Then came one
of his men, and would abide in the house of a householder against
his will, and wounded the householder; and the householder slew
the other. Then Eustace got upon his horse, and his companions
upon theirs; and they went to the householder, and slew him
within his own dwelling; and they went up towards the town, and
slew, as well within as without, more than twenty men. And the
townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded they
knew not how many. And Eustace escaped with a few men, and went
again to the king, and made known to him, in part, how they had
fared. And the king became very wroth with the townsmen. And
the king sent off Godwin the earl, and bade him go into Kent in a
hostile manner to Dover: for Eustace had made it appear to the
king, that it had been more the fault of the townsmen than his:
but it was not so. And the earl would not consent to the inroad,
because he was loth to injure his own people. Then the king sent
after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester, nigh the
aftermass of St. Mary. Then had the Welshmen erected a castle in
Herefordshire among the people of Sweyn the earl, and wrought
every kind of harm and disgrace to the king's men there about
which they could. Then came Godwin the earl, and Sweyn the earl,
and Harold the earl, together at Beverstone, and many men with
them, in order that they might go to their royal lord, and to all
the peers who were assembled with him, in order that they might
have the advice of the king and his aid, and of all this council,
how they might avenge the king's disgrace, and the whole
nation's. Then were the Welshmen with the king beforehand, and
accused the earls, so that they might not come within his eyes'
sight; because they said that they were coming thither in order
to betray the king. Thither had come Siward the earl [Of
Northumbria] and Leofric the earl [Of Mercia], and much people
with them, from the north, to the king; and it was made known to
the Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king and the men who were
with him, were taking counsel concerning them: and they arrayed
themselves on the other hand resolutely, though it were loathful
to them that they should stand against their royal lord. Then
the peers on either side decreed that every kind of evil should
cease: and the king gave the peace of God and his full friendship
to either side. Then the king and his peers decreed that a
council of all the nobles should be held for the second time in
London at the harvest equinox; and the king directed the army to
be called out, as well south of the Thames as north, all that was
in any way most eminent. Then declared they Sweyn the earl an
outlaw, and summoned Godwin the earl and Harold the earl, to the
council, as quickly as they could effect it. When they had come
thither, then were they summoned into the council. Then required
he safe conduct and hostages, so that he might come, unbetrayed,
into the council and out of the council. Then the king demanded
all the thanes whom the earls before had: and they granted them
all into his hands. Then the king sent again to them, and
commanded them that they should come with twelve men to the
king's council. Then the earl again required safe conduct and
hostages, that he might defend himself against each of those
things which were laid to him. Then were the hostages refused
him; and he was allowed a safe conduct for five nights to go out
of the land. And then Godwin the earl and Sweyn the earl went to
Bosham, and shoved out their ships, and betook themselves beyond
sea, and sought Baldwin's protection, and abode there all the
winter. And Harold the earl went west to Ireland, and was there
all the winter within the king's protection. And soon after this
happened, then put away the king the lady who had been
consecrated his queen [Editha], and caused to be taken from her
all which she possessed, in land, and in gold, and in silver, and
in all things, and delivered her to his sister at Wherwell. And
Abbot Sparhafoc was then driven out of the bishopric of London,
and William the king's priest was ordained thereto. And then
Odda was appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and
over Dorset, and over the Welsh. And Algar, the son of Leofric
the earl, was appointed to the earldom which Harold before

A.D. 1049. (62) This year the emperor gathered an innumerable
army against Baldwin of Bruges, because he had destroyed the
palace of Nimeguen, and because of many other ungracious acts
that he did against him. The army was immense that he had
collected together. There was Leo, the Pope of Rome, and the
patriarch, and many other great men of several provinces. He
sent also to King Edward, and requested of him naval aid, that he
might not permit him to escape from him by water. Whereupon he
went to Sandwich, and lay there with a large naval armament,
until the emperor had all that he wished of Baldwin. Thither
also came back again Earl Sweyne, who had gone from this land to
Denmark, and there ruined his cause with the Danes. He came
hither with a pretence, saying that he would again submit to the
king, and be his man; and he requested Earl Beorn to be of
assistance to him, and give him land to feed him on. But Harold,
his brother, and Earl Beorn resisted, and would give him nothing
of that which the king had given them. The king also refused him
everything. Whereupon Swevne retired to his ships at Bosham.
Then, after the settlement between the emperor and Baldwin, many
ships went home, and the king remained behind Sandwich with a few
ships. Earl Godwin also sailed forty-two ships from Sandwich to
Pevensey, and Earl Beorn went with him. Then the king gave leave
to all the Mercians to return home, and they did so. Then it was
told the king that Osgod lay at Ulps with thirty-nine ships;
whereupon the king sent after the ships that he might dispatch,
which before had gone homewards, but still lay at the Nore. Then
Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges; and they went back again with
six ships; but the rest went towards Essex, to Eadulf's-ness, and
there plundered, and then returned to their ships. But there
came upon them a strong wind, so that they were all lost but four
persons, who were afterwards slain beyond sea. Whilst Earl
Godwin and Earl Beorn lay at Pevensey with their ships, came Earl
Sweyne, and with a pretence requested of Earl Beorn, who was his
uncle's son, that he would be his companion to the king at
Sandwich, and better his condition with him; adding, that he
would swear oaths to him, and be faithful to him. Whereupon
Beorn concluded, that he would not for their relationship betray
him. He therefore took three companions with him, and they rode
to Bosham, where his (63) ships lay, as though they should
proceed to Sandwich; but they suddenly bound him, and led him to
the ships, and went thence with him to Dartmouth, where they
ordered him to be slain and buried deep. He was afterwards
found, and Harold his cousin fetched him thence, and led him to
Winchester, to the old minster, where he buried him with King
Knute, his uncle. Then the king and all the army proclaimed
Sweyne an outlaw. A little before this the men of Hastings and
thereabout fought his two ships with their ships, and slew all
the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich to the king. Eight
ships had he, ere he betrayed Beorn; afterwards they all forsook
him except two; whereupon he went eastward to the land of
Baldwin, and sat there all the winter at Bruges, in full
security. In the same year came up from Ireland thirty-six ships
on the Welsh coast, and thereabout committed outrages, with the
aid of Griffin, the Welsh king. The people were soon gathered
against them, and there was also with them Bishop Eldred, but
they had too little assistance, and the enemy came unawares on
them very early in the morning, and slew on the spot many good
men; but the others burst forth with the bishop. This was done
on the fourth day before the calends of August. This year died
the good Bishop Ednoth in Oxfordshire; and Oswy, Abbot of Thomey;
and Wulfnoth, Abbot of Westminster; and King Edward gave the
bishopric which Ednoth had to Ulf his priest, but it ill betided
him; and he was driven from it, because he did nought like a
bishop therein, so that it shameth us now to say more. Bishop
Siward also died who lies at Abingdon. In this same year King
Edward put nine ships out of pay; and the crews departed, and
went away with the ships withal, leaving five ships only behind,
for whom the king ordered twelve months pay. The same year went
Bishops Hereman and Aldred to the pope at Rome on the king's
errand. This year was also consecrated the great minster at
Rheims, in the presence of Pope Leo and the emperor. There was
also a great synod at St. Remy; (64) at which was present Pope
Leo, with the Archbishops of Burgundy, of Besancon, of Treves,
and of Rheims; and many wise men besides, both clergy and laity.
A great synod there held they respecting the service of God, at
the instance of St. Leo the pope. It is difficult to recognise
all the bishops that came thither, and also abbots. King Edward
sent thither Bishop Dudoc, and Abbot Wulfric, of St. Augustine's,
and Elfwin, Abbot of Ramsey, with the intent that they should
report to the king what was determined there concerning
Christendom. This same year came Earl Sweyne into England.

((A.D. 1049. This year Sweyn came again to Denmark, and Harold.
uncle of Magnus, went to Norway after Magnus was dead; and the
Normans acknowledged him: and he sent hither to land concerning
peace. And Sweyn also sent from Denmark, and begged of King
Edward the aid of his ships. They were to be at least fifty
ships: but all people opposed it. And this year also there was
an earthquake, on the kalends of May, in many places in
Worcester, and in Wick, and in Derby, and elsewhere; and also
there was a great mortality among men, and murrain among cattle:
and moreover, the wild-fire did much evil in Derbyshire and

A.D. 1050. This year returned the bishops home from Rome; (65)
and Earl Sweyne had his sentence of outlawry reversed. The same
year died Edsy, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the fourth day
before the calends of November; and also in the same year Elfric,
Archbishop of York, on the eleventh before the calends of
February, a very venerable man and wise, and his body lies at
Peterborough. Then had King Edward a meeting of the great
council in London, in mid-lent, at which he appointed Robert the
Frank, who was before Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury;
and he, during the same Lent, went to Rome after his pall. The
king meanwhile gave the see of London to Sparhawk, Abbot of
Abingdon, but it was taken from him again before he was
consecrated. The king also gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop
Rodulph his cousin. The same year he put all the lightermen out
of pay. (66) The pope held a council again, at Vercelli; and
Bishop Ulf came thither, where he nearly had his staff broken,
had he not paid more money, because he could not perform his
duties so well as he should do. The same year King Edward
abolished the Danegeld which King Ethelred imposed. That was in
the thirty-ninth year after it had begun. That tribute harassed
all the people of England so long as is above written; and it was
always paid before other imposts, which were levied
indiscriminately, and vexed men variously.

((A.D. 1050. Thither also came Sweyn the earl, who before had
gone from this land to Denmark, and who there had ruined himself
with the Danes. He came thither with false pretences; saying
that he would again be obedient to the king. And Beorn the earl
promised him that he would be of assistance to him. Then, after
the reconciliation of the emperor and of Baldwin, many of the
ships went home, and the king remained behind at Sandwich with a
few ships; and Godwin the earl also went with forty-two ships
from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Beorn the earl went with him.
Then was it made known to the king that Osgood lay at Ulps with
thirty-nine ships; and the king then sent after the ships which
before had gone home, that he might send after him. And Osgod
fetched his wife from Bruges, and they went back again with six
ships. And the others landed in Sussex [Essex] at Eadulf-ness,
and there did harm, and went again to their ships: and then a
strong wind came against them, so that they were all destroyed,
except four, whose crews were slain beyond sea. While Godwin the
earl and Beorn the earl lay at Pevensey, then came Sweyn the
earl, and begged Beorn the earl, with fraud, who was his uncle's
son, that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich, and
better his affairs with him. He went then, on account of the
relationship, with three companions, with him; and he led him
then towards Bosham, where his ships lay: and then they bound
him, and led him on ship-board. Then went he thence with him to
Dartmouth, and there ordered him to be slain, and deeply buried.
Afterwards he was found, and borne to Winchester, and buried with
king Canute his uncle. A little before that, the men of Hastings
and thereabout, fought two of his ships with their ships; and
slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich to the king.
Eight ships he had before he betrayed Beorn; after that all
forsook him except two. In the same year arrived in the Welsh
Axa, from Ireland, thirty-six ships, and thereabout did harm,
with the help of Griffin the Welsh king. The people were
gathered together against them; Bishop Aldred [Of Worchester] was
also there with them; but they had too little power. And they
came unawares upon them at very early morn; and there they slew
many good men, and the others escaped with the bishop: this was
done on the fourth before the kalends of August. This year died,
in Oxfordshire, Oswy, Abbot of Thorney, and Wulfnoth, Abbot of
Westminster; and Ulf the priest was appointed as pastor to the
bishopric which Eadnoth had held; but he was after that driven
away; because he did nothing bishop-like therein: so that it
shameth us now to tell more about it. And Bishop Siward died: he
lieth at Abingdon. And this year was consecrated the great
minster at Rheims: there was Pope Leo [IX.] and the emperor
[Henry III]; and there they held a great synod concerning God's
service. St. Leo the pope presided at the synod: it is difficult
to have a knowledge of the bishops who came there, and how many
abbots: and hence, from this land were sent two -- from St.
Augustine's and from Ramsey.))

A.D. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with
his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took
his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and
soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to
him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should
consecrate him Bishop oœ London; but the archbishop refused,
saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to
the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded
episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused,
repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot
to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before
given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn.
Then during the same year came Eustace, who had the sister of
King Edward to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and
went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose,
he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward,
there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to
Dover. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he
put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they
proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to
quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his
men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against
his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was
slain by the other. Then was Eustace quickly upon his horse, and
his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the
family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the
boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty
men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and
wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace escaped with a
few men, and went again to the king, telling him partially how
they had fared. The king was very wroth with the townsmen, and
sent off Earl Godwin, bidding him go into Kent with hostility to
Dover. For Eustace had told the king that the guilt of the
townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl
would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to
destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his
council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of
St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin took it much to heart, that in his
earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather
forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne, his son, over his;
and Harold, his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled
all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a large and innumerable
army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace and
his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen
that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the
latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward was sitting at
Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north
after Earl Siward, and summoned their retinues. At first they
came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in
the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and
ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph
also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to
the aid of the king, though it was late. So unanimous were they
all in defence of the king, that they would seek Godwin's army if
the king desired it. But some prevented that; because it was
very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies
was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore
prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy
of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt
ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange
hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout
to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this
north end in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also
elsewhere; and Earl Godwin was to come thither with his sons to a
conference; They came as far as Southwark, and very many with
them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and
more; for they bound over to the king all the thanes that
belonged to Earl Harold his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne his
other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come
to a conference against the king and against the army that was
with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king
held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole
army; himself and his wife, and all his three sons -- Sweyne and
Tosty and Grith. And he went south to Thorney, (67) with his
wife, and Sweyne his son, and Tosty and his wife, a cousin of
Baldwin of Bruges, and his son Grith. Earl Harold with Leofwine
went to Bristol in the ship that Earl Sweyne had before prepared
and provisioned for himself; and the king sent Bishop Aldred from
London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came
to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then
went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such
adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered
great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the
weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a
castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne, and
brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's men thereabout
as they could. Then came Earl Godwin, and Earl Sweyne, and Earl
Harold, together at Beverstone, and many men with them; to the
intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the
peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's counsel
and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge
the insult offered to the king, and to all the nation. But the
Welshmen were before with the king, and bewrayed the earls, so
that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his
eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to
betray the king. There was now assembled before the king (68)
Earl Siward, and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the
north: and it was told Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king
and the men who were with him would take counsel against them;
but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were
loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the
peers on either side, that they should abstain from all
hostility: and the king gave God's peace and his full friendship
to each party. Then advised the king and his council, that there
should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in
London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king ordered out an army
both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then
was Earl Sweyne proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin and Earl
Harold were summoned to the council as early as they could come.
When they came thither and were cited to the council, then
required they security and hostages, that they might come into
the council and go out without treachery. The king then demanded
all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his
hands. Then sent the king again to them, and commanded them to
come with twelve men to the king's council. Then desired the
earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to
each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the
hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him
to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin and Earl Sweyne
to Bosham, and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking
the protection of Baldwin; and there they abode all the winter.
Earl Harold went westward to Ireland, and was there all the
winter on the king's security. It was from Thorney (69) that
Godwin and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's
land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge
therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by
every man that was then in England, if any person had said before
this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a
height, that he ruled the king and all England; his sons were
earls, and the king's darlings; and his daughter wedded and
united to the king. Soon after this took place, the king
dismissed the lady who had been consecrated his queen, and
ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in
gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the
care of his sister at Wherwell. Soon after came Earl William
from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king
entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient
to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven
from his bishopric at London; and William the king's priest was
invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over
Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales;
and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom
which Harold before possessed.

((A.D. 1051. In this year died Eadsine, Archbishop of
Canterbury; and the king gave to Robert the Frenchman, who before
had been Bishop of London, the archbishopric. And Sparhafoc,
Abbot of Abingdon, succeeded to the bishopric of London; and it
was afterwards taken from him before he was consecrated. And
Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred went to Rome.))

A.D. 1052. This year, on the second day before the nones of
March, died the aged Lady Elfgiva Emma, the mother of King Edward
and of King Hardacnute, the relict of King Ethelred and of King
Knute; and her body lies in the old minster with King Knute. At
this time Griffin, the Welsh king, plundered in Herefordshire
till he came very nigh to Leominster; and they gathered against
him both the landsmen and the Frenchmen from the castle; and
there were slain very many good men of the English, and also of
the French. This was on the same day thirteen years after that
Edwin was slain with his companions. In the same year advised
the king and his council, that ships should be sent out to
Sandwich, and that Earl Ralph and Earl Odda should be appointed
headmen thereto. Then went Earl Godwin out from Bruges with his
ships to Ysendyck; and sailed forth one day before midsummer-eve,
till he came to the Ness that is to the south of Romney. When it
came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, they went out
after the other ships; and a land-force was also ordered out
against the ships. Meanwhile Earl Godwin had warning, and betook
himself into Pevensey: and the weather was so boisterous, that
the earls could not learn what had become of Earl Godwin. But
Earl Godwin then went out again until he came back to Bruges; and
the other ships returned back again to Sandwich. Then it was
advised that the ships should go back again to London, and that
other earls and other pilots should be appointed over them. But
it was delayed so long that the marine army all deserted; and
they all betook themselves home. When Earl Godwin understood
that, he drew up his sail and his ship: and they (70) went west
at once to the Isle of Wight; and landing there, they plundered
so long that the people gave them as much as they required of
them. Then proceeded they westward until they came to Portland,
where they landed and did as much harm as they could possibly do.
Meanwhile Harold had gone out from Ireland with nine ships, and
came up at Potlock with his ships to the mouth of the Severn,
near the boundaries of Somerset and Devonshire, and there
plundered much. The land-folk collected against him, both from
Somerset and from Devonshire: but he put them to flight, and slew
there more than thirty good thanes, besides others; and went soon
after about Penwithstert, where was much people gathered against
him; but he spared not to provide himself with meat, and went up
and slew on the spot a great number of the people -- seizing in
cattle, in men, and in money, whatever he could. Then went he
eastward to his father; and they went both together eastward (71)
until they came to the Isle of Wight, where they seized whatever
had been left them before. Thence they went to Pevensey, and got
out with them as many ships as had gone in there, and so
proceeded forth till they came to the Ness; (72) getting all the
ships that were at Romney, and at Hithe, and at Folkstone. Then
ordered King Edward to fit out forty smacks that lay at Sandwich
many weeks, to watch Earl Godwin, who was at Bruges during the
winter; but he nevertheless came hither first to land, so as to
escape their notice. And whilst he abode in this land, he
enticed to him all the Kentish men, and all the boatmen from
Hastings, and everywhere thereabout by the sea-coast, and all the
men of Essex and Sussex and Surrey, and many others besides.
Then said they all that they would with him live or die. When
the fleet that lay at Sandwich had intelligence about Godwin's
expedition, they set sail after him; but he escaped them, and
betook himself wherever he might: and the fleet returned to
Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwin understood that
the fleet that lay at Sandwich was gone home, then went he back
again to the Isle of Wight, and lay thereabout by the sea-coast
so long that they came together -- he and his son Earl Harold.
But they did no great harm after they came together; save that
they took meat, and enticed to them all the land-folk by the sea-
coast and also upward in the land. And they proceeded toward
Sandwich, ever alluring forth with them all the boatmen that they
met; and to Sandwich they came with an increasing army. They
then steered eastward round to Dover, and landing there, took as
many ships and hostages as they chose, and so returned to
Sandwich, where they did the same; and men everywhere gave them
hostages and provisions, wherever they required them. Then
proceeded they to the Nore, and so toward London; but some of the
ships landed on the Isle of Shepey, and did much harm there;
whence they steered to Milton Regis, and burned it all, and then
proceeded toward London after the earls. When they came to
London, there lay the king and all his earls to meet them, with
fifty ships. The earls (73) then sent to the king, praying that
they might be each possessed of those things which had been
unjustly taken from them. But the king resisted some while; so
long that the people who were with the earl were very much
stirred against the king and against his people, so that the earl
himself with difficulty appeased them. When King Edward
understood that, then sent he upward after more aid; but they
came very late. And Godwin stationed himself continually before
London with his fleet, till he came to Southwark; where he abode
some time, until the flood (74) came up. On this occasion he
also contrived with the burgesses that they should do almost all
that he would. When he had arranged his whole expedition, then
came the flood; and they soon weighed anchor, and steered through
the bridge by the south side. The land-force meanwhile came
above, and arranged themselves by the Strand; and they formed
an angle with the ships against the north side, as if they wished
to surround the king's ships. The king had also a great land-
force on his side, to add to his shipmen: but they were most of
them loth to fight with their own kinsmen -- for there was little
else of any great importance but Englishmen on either side; and
they were also unwilling that this land should be the more
exposed to outlandish people, because they destroyed each other.
Then it was determined that wise men should be sent between them,
who should settle peace on either side. Godwin went up, and
Harold his son, and their navy, as many as they then thought
proper. Then advanced Bishop Stigand with God's assistance, and
the wise men both within the town and without; who determined
that hostages should be given on either side. And so they did.
When Archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen knew that, they took
horse; and went some west to Pentecost Castle, some north to
Robert's castle. Archbishop Robert and Bishop Ulf, with their
companions, went out at Eastgate, slaying or else maiming many
young men, and betook themselves at once to Eadulf's-ness; where
he put himself on board a crazy ship, and went at once over sea,
leaving his pall and all Christendom here on land, as God
ordained, because he had obtained an honour which God disclaimed.
Then was proclaimed a general council without London; and all the
earls and the best men in the land were at the council. There
took up Earl Godwin his burthen, and cleared himself there before
his lord King Edward, and before all the nation; proving that he
was innocent of the crime laid to his charge, and to his son
Harold and all his children. And the king gave the earl and his
children, and all the men that were with him, his full
friendship, and the full earldom, and all that he possessed
before; and he gave the lady all that she had before. Archbishop
Robert was fully proclaimed an outlaw, with all the Frenchmen;
because they chiefly made the discord between Earl Godwin and the
king: and Bishop Stigand succeeded to the archbishopric at
Canterbury. At the council therefore they gave Godwin fairly his
earldom, so full and so free as he at first possessed it; and his
sons also all that they formerly had; and his wife and his
daughter so full and so free as they formerly had. And they
fastened full friendship between them, and ordained good laws to
all people. Then they outlawed all Frenchmen -- who before
instituted bad laws, and judged unrighteous judgment, and brought
bad counsels into this land -- except so many as they concluded
it was agreeable to the king to have with him, who were true to
him and to all his people. It was with difficulty that Bishop
Robert, and Bishop William, and Bishop Ulf, escaped with the
Frenchmen that were with them, and so went over sea. Earl
Godwin, and Harold, and the queen, sat in their stations. Sweyne
had before gone to Jerusalem from Bruges, and died on his way
home at Constantinople, at Michaelmas. It was on the Monday
after the festival of St. Mary, that Godwin came with his ships
to Southwark: and on the morning afterwards, on the Tuesday, they
were reconciled as it stands here before recorded. Godwin then
sickened soon after he came up, and returned back. But he made
altogether too little restitution of God's property, which he
acquired from many places. At the same time Arnwy, Abbot of
Peterborough, resigned his abbacy in full health; and gave it to
the monk Leofric, with the king's leave and that of the monks;
and the Abbot Arnwy lived afterwards eight winters. The Abbot
Leofric gilded the minster, so that it was called Gildenborough;
and it then waxed very much in land, and in gold, and in silver.

((A.D. 1052. This year died Alfric, Archbishop of York, a very
pious man, and wise. And in the same year King Edward abolished
the tribute, which King Ethelred had before imposed: that was in
the nine-and-thirtieth year after he had begun it. That tax
distressed all the English nation during so long a time, as it
has been written; that was ever before other taxes which were
variously paid, and wherewith the people were manifestly
distressed. In the same year Eustace [Earl of Boulougne] landed
at Dover: he had King Edward's sister to wife. Then went his men
inconsiderately after quarters, and a certain man of the town
they slew; and another man of the town their companion; so that
there lay seven of his companions. And much harm was there done
on either side, by horse and also by weapons, until the people
gathered together: and then they fled away until they came to the
king at Gloucester; and he gave them protection. When Godwin,
the earl, understood that such things should have happened in his
earldom, then began he to gather together people over all his
earldom, (75) and Sweyn, the earl, his son, over his, and Harold,
his other son, over his earldom; and they all drew together in
Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a great force and countless, all
ready for battle against the king, unless Eustace were given up,
and his men placed in their hands, and also the Frenchmen who
were in the castle. This was done seven days before the latter
mass of St. Mary. Then was King Edward sitting at Gloucester.
Then sent he after Leofric the earl [Of Mercia] and north after
Siward the earl [Of Northumbria] and begged their forces. And
then they came to him; first with a moderate aid, but after they
knew how it was there, in the south, then sent they north over
all their earldoms, and caused to be ordered out a large force
for the help of their lord; and Ralph, also, over his earldom:
and then came they all to Gloucester to help the king, though it
might be late. Then were they all so united in opinion with the
king that they would have sought out Godwin's forces if the king
had so willed. Then thought some of them that it would be a
great folly that they should join battle; because there was
nearly all that was most noble in England in the two armies, and
they thought that they should expose the land to our foes, and
cause great destruction among ourselves. Then counselled they
that hostages should be given mutually; and they appointed a term
at London, and thither the people were ordered out over all this
north end, in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also
elsewhere; and Godwin, the earl, and his sons were to come there
with their defence. Then came they to Southwark, and a great
multitude with them, from Wessex; but his band continually
diminished the longer he stayed. And they exacted pledges for
the king from all the thanes who were under Harold, the earl, his
son; and then they outlawed Sweyn, the earl, his other son. Then
did it not suit him to come with a defence to meet the king, and
to meet the army which was with him. Then went he by night away;
and the king on the morrow held a council, and, together with all
the army, declared him an outlaw, him and all his sons. And he
went south to Thorney, and his wife, and Sweyn his son, and Tosty
and his wife, Baldwin's relation of Bruges, and Grith his son.
And Harold, the earl, and Leofwine, went to Bristol in the ship
which Sweyn, the earl, had before got ready for himself, and
provisioned. And the king sent Bishop Aldred [Of Worcester] to
London with a force; and they were to overtake him ere he came on
ship-board: but they could not or they would not. And he went
out from Avonmouth, and met with such heavy weather that he with
difficulty got away; and there he sustained much damage. Then
went he forth to Ireland when fit weather came. And Godwin, and
those who were with him, went from Thorney to Bruges, to
Baldwin's land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they might
therein best stow for each man. It would have seemed wondrous to
every man who was in England if any one before that had said that
it should end thus; for he had been erewhile to that degree
exalted, as if he ruled the king and all England; and his sons
were earls and the king's darlings, and his daughter wedded and
united to the king: she was brought to Wherwell, and they
delivered her to the abbess. Then, soon, came William, the earl
[Of Normandy], from beyond seas with a great band of Frenchmen;
and the king received him, and as many of his companions as it
pleased him; and let him away again. This same year was given to
William, the priest, the bishopric of London, which before had
been given to Sparhafoc.))

((A.D. 1052. This year died Elfgive, the lady, relict of King
Ethelred and of King Canute, on the second before the nones of
March. In the same year Griffin, the Welsh king, plundered in
Herefordshire, until he came very nigh to Leominster; and they
gathered against him, as well the landsmen as the Frenchmen of
the castle, and there were slain of the English very many good
men, and also of the Frenchmen; that was on the same day, on
which, thirteen years before, Eadwine had been slain by his

((A.D. 1052. In this year died Elgive Emma, King Edward's mother
and King Hardecanute's. And in this same year, the king decreed,
and his council, that ships should proceed to Sandwich; and they
set Ralph, the earl. and Odda, the earl [Of Devon], as headmen
thereto. Then Godwin, the earl, went out from Bruges with his
ships to Ysendyck, and left it one day before Midsummer's-mass
eve, so that he came to Ness, which is south of Romney. Then
came it to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich; and they
then went out after the other ships, and a land-force was ordered
out against the ships. Then during this, Godwin, the earl, was
warned, and then he went to Pevensey; and the weather was very
severe, so that the earls could not learn what was become of
Godwin, the earl. And then Godwin, the earl, went out again,
until he came once more to Bruges; and the other ships returned
again to Sandwich. And then it was decreed that the ships should
return once more to London, and that other earls and commanders
should be appointed to the ships. Then was it delayed so long
that the ship-force all departed, and all of them went home.
When Godwin, the earl, learned that, then drew he up his sail,
and his fleet, and then went west direct to the Isle of Wight,
and there landed and ravaged so long there, until the people
yielded them so much as they laid on them. And then they went
westward until they came to Portland, and there they landed,
and did whatsoever harm they were able to do. Then was Harold
come out from Ireland with nine ships; and then landed at
Porlock, and there much people was gathered against him; but he
failed not to procure himself provisions. He proceeded further,
and slew there a great number of the people, and took of cattle,
and of men, and of property as it suited him. He then went
eastward to his father; and then they both went eastward until
they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took that which was yet
remaining for them. And then they went thence to Pevensey and
got away thence as many ships as were there fit for service, and
so onwards until he came to Ness, and got all the ships which
were in Romney, and in Hythe, and in Folkstone. And then they
went east to Dover, and there landed, and there took ships and
hostages, as many as they would, and so went to Sandwich and did
"hand" the same; and everywhere hostages were given them, and
provisions wherever they desired. And then they went to North-
mouth, and so toward London; and some of the ships went within
Sheppey, and there did much harm, and went their way to King's
Milton, and that they all burned, and betook themselves then
toward London after the earls. When they came to London, there
lay the king and all the earls there against them, with fifty
ships. Then the earls sent to the king, and required of him,
that they might be held worthy of each of those things which
had been unjustly taken from them. Then the king, however,
resisted some while; so long as until the people who were with
the earl were much stirred against the king and against his
people, so that the earl himself with difficulty stilled the
people. Then Bishop Stigand interposed with God's help, and the
wise men as well within the town as without; and they decreed
that hostages should be set forth on either side: and thus was it
done. When Archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen learned that,
they took their horses and went, some west to Pentecost's castle,
some north to Robert's castle. And Archbishop Robert and Bishop
Ulf went out at East-gate, and their companions, and slew and
otherwise injured many young men, and went their way to direct
Eadulf's-ness; and he there put himself in a crazy ship, and went
direct over sea, and left his pall and all Christendom here on
land, so as God would have it, inasmuch as he had before obtained
the dignity so as God would not have it. Then there was a great
council proclaimed without London: and all the earls and the
chief men who were in this land were at the council. There
Godwin bore forth his defence, and justified himself, before King
Edward his lord, and before all people of the land, that he was
guiltless of that which was laid against him, and against Harold
his son, and all his children. And the king gave to the earl and
his children his full friendship, and full earldom, and all that
he before possessed, and to all the men who were with him. And
the king gave to the lady [Editha] all that she before possessed.
And they declared Archbishop Robert utterly an outlaw, and all
the Frenchmen, because they had made most of the difference
between Godwin, the earl, and the king. And Bishop Stigand
obtained the Archbishopric of Canterbury. In this same time
Arnwy, Abbot of Peterborough, left the abbacy, in sound health,
and gave it to Leofric the monk, by leave of the king and of the
monks; and Abbot Arnwy lived afterwards eight years. And Abbot
Leofric then (enriched) the minster, so that it was called the
Golden-borough. Then it waxed greatly, in land, and in gold, and
in silver.))

((A.D. 1052. And went so to the Isle of Wight, and there took
all the ships which could be of any service, and hostages, and
betook himself so eastward. And Harold had landed with nine
ships at Porlock, and slew there much people, and took cattle,
and men, and property, and went his way eastward to his father,
and they both went to Romney, to Hythe, to Folkstone, to Dover,
to Sandwich, and ever they took all the ships which they found,
which could be of any service, and hostages, all as they
proceeded; and went then to London.))

A.D. 1053. About this time was the great wind, on the mass-night
of St. Thomas; which did much harm everywhere. And all the
midwinter also was much wind. It was this year resolved to slay
Rees, the Welsh king's brother, because he did harm; and they
brought his head to Gloucester on the eve of Twelfth-day. In
this same year, before Allhallowmas, died Wulfsy, Bishop of
Lichfield; and Godwin, Abbot of Winchcomb; and Aylward, Abbot of
Glastonbury; all within one month. And Leofwine, Abbot of
Coventry, took to the bishopric at Lichfield; Bishop Aldred to
the abbacy at Winchcomb; and Aylnoth took to the abbacy at
Glastonbury. The same year died Elfric, brother of Odda, at
Deerhurst; and his body resteth at Pershore. In this year was
the king at Winchester, at Easter; and Earl Godwin with him, and
Earl Harold his son, and Tosty. On the day after Easter sat he
with the king at table; when he suddenly sunk beneath against the
foot-rail, deprived of speech and of all his strength. He was
brought into the king's chamber; and they supposed that it would
pass over: but it was not so. He continued thus speechless and
helpless till the Thursday; when he resigned his life, on the
seventeenth before the calends of May; and he was buried at
Winchester in the old minster. Earl Harold, his son, took to the
earldom that his father had before, and to all that his father
possessed; whilst Earl Elgar took to the earldom that Harold had
before. The Welshmen this year slew a great many of the warders
of the English people at Westbury. This year there was no
archbishop in this land: but Bishop Stigand held the see of
Canterbury at Christ church, and Kinsey that of York. Leofwine
and Wulfwy went over sea, and had themselves consecrated bishops
there. Wulfwy took to the bishopric which Ulf had whilst he was
living and in exile.

((A.D. 1053. This year was the great wind on Thomas's-mass-
night, and also the whole midwinter there was much wind; and it
was decreed that Rees, the Welsh king's brother, should be slain,
because he had done harm; and his head was brought to Gloucester
on Twelfth-day eve. And the same year, before All Hallows-mass,
died Wulfsy, Bishop of Lichfield, and Godwin, Abbot of Winchcomb,
and Egelward, Abbot of Clastonbury, all within one month, and
Leofwine succeeded to the Bishopric of Lichfield, and Bishop
Aidred [Of Worcester] took the abbacy at Winchcomb, and Egelnoth
succeeded to the abbacy at Glastonbury. And the same year died
Elfric, Odda's brother at Deorhurst; and his body resteth at
Pershore. And the same year died Godwin the earl; and he fell
ill as he sat with the king at Winchester. And Harold his son
succeeded to the earldom which his father before held; and Elgar,
the earl, succeeded to the earldom which Harold before held.))

((A.D. 1053. In this year died Godwin, the earl, on the
seventeenth before the kalends of May, and he is buried at
Winchester, in the Old-minster; and Harold, the earl, his son,
succeeded to the earldom, and to all that which his father had
held: and Elgar, the earl, succeeded to the earldom which Harold
before held.))

A.D. 1054. This year died Leo the holy pope, at Rome: and Victor
was chosen pope in his stead. And in this year was so great loss
of cattle as was not remembered for many winters before. This
year went Earl Siward with a large army against Scotland,
consisting both of marines and landforces; and engaging with the
Scots, he put to flight the King Macbeth; slew all the best in
the land; and led thence much spoil, such as no man before
obtained. Many fell also on his side, both Danish and English;
even his own son, Osborn, and his sister's son, Sihward: and many
of his house-carls, and also of the king's, were there slain that
day, which was that of the Seven Sleepers. This same year went
Bishop Aldred south over sea into Saxony, to Cologne, on the
king's errand; where he was entertained with great respect by the
emperor, abode there well-nigh a year, and received presents not
only from the court, but from the Bishop of Cologne and the
emperor. He commissioned Bishop Leofwine to consecrate the
minster at Evesham; and it was consecrated in the same year, on
the sixth before the ides of October. This year also died Osgod
Clapa suddenly in his bed, as he lay at rest.

((A.D. 1054. This year went Siward the earl with a great army
into Scotland, both with a ship-force and with a landforce, and
fought against the Scots, and put to flight King Macbeth, and
slew all who were the chief men in the land, and led thence much
booty, such as no man before had obtained. But his son Osborn,
and his sister's son Siward, and some of his house-carls, and
also of the king's, were there slain, on the day of the Seven
Sleepers. The same year went Bishop Aldred to Cologne, over sea,
on the king's errand; and he was there received with much worship
by the emperor [Henry III], and there he dwelt well nigh a year;
and either gave him entertainment, both the Bishop of Cologne and
the emperor. And he gave leave to Bishop Leofwine [Of Lichfield]
to consecrate the minster at Evesham on the sixth before the ides
of October. In this year died Osgod suddenly in his bed. And
this year died St. Leo the pope; and Victor was chosen pope in
his stead.))

A.D. 1055. This year died Earl Siward at York; and his body lies
within the minster at Galmanho, (76) which he had himself ordered
to be built and consecrated, in the name of God and St. O1ave, to
the honour of God and to all his saints. Archbishop Kinsey
fetched his pall from Pope Victor. Then, within a little time
after, a general council was summoned in London, seven nights
before mid-Lent; at which Earl Elgar, son of Earl Leofric, was
outlawed almost without any guilt; because it was said against
him that he was the betrayer of the king and of all the people of
the land. And he was arraigned thereof before all that were
there assembled, though the crime laid to his charge was
unintentional. The king, however, gave the earldom, which Earl
Siward formerly had, to Tosty, son of Earl Godwin. Whereupon
Earl Elgar sought Griffin's territory in North-Wales; whence he
went to Ireland, and there gave him a fleet of eighteen ships,
besides his own; and then returned to Wales to King Griffin with
the armament, who received him on terms of amity. And they
gathered a great force with the Irishmen and the Welsh: and Earl
Ralph collected a great army against them at the town of
Hereford; where they met; but ere there was a spear thrown the
English people fled, because they were on horses. The enemy then
made a great slaughter there -- about four hundred or five
hundred men; they on the other side none. They went then to the
town, and burned it utterly; and the large minster (77) also
which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had caused to be built, that
they plundered and bereft of relic and of reef, and of all things
whatever; and the people they slew, and led some away. Then an
army from all parts of England was gathered very nigh; (78) and
they came to Gloucester: whence they sallied not far out against
the Welsh, and there lay some time. And Earl Harold caused the
dike to be dug about the town the while. Meantime men began to
speak of peace; and Earl Harold and those who were with him came
to Bilsley, where amity and friendship were established between
them. The sentence of outlawry against Earl Elgar was reversed;
and they gave him all that was taken from him before. The fleet
returned to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which Elgar
promised them. The slaughter was on the ninth before the calends
of November. In the same year died Tremerig, the Welsh bishop,
soon after the plundering; who was Bishop Athelstan's substitute,
after he became infirm.

((A.D. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl at York, and he
lies at Galmanho, in the minster which himself caused to be
built, and consecrated in God's and Olave's name. And Tosty
succeeded to the earldom which he had held. And Archbishop
Kynsey [Of York], fetched his pall from Pope Victor. And soon
thereafter was outlawed Elgar the earl, son of Leofric the earl,
well-nigh without guilt. But he went to Ireland and to Wales,
and procured himself there a great force, and so went to
Hereford: but there came against him Ralph the earl, with a large
army, and with a slight conflict he put them to flight, and much
people slew in the flight: and they went then into Hereford-port,
and that they ravaged, and burned the great minster which Bishop
Athelstan had built, and slew the priests within the minster, and
many in addition thereto, and took all the treasures therein, and
carried them away with them. And when they had done the utmost
evil, this counsel was counselled: that Elgar the earl should be
inlawed, and be given his earldom, and all that had been taken
from him. This ravaging happened on the 9th before the Kalends
of November. In the same year died Tremerin the Welsh bishop [Of
St. David's] soon after that ravaging: and he was Bishop
Athelstan's coadjutor from the time that he had become infirm.))

((A.D. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl: and then was
summoned a general council, seven days before Mid-lent; and they
outlawed Elgar the earl, because it was cast upon him that he was
a traitor to the king and to all the people of the land. And he
made a confession of it before all the men who were there
gathered; though the word escaped him unintentionally. And the
king gave the earldom to Tosty, son of Earl Godwin, which Siward
the earl before held. And Elgar the earl sought Griffin's
protection in North-Wales. And in this year Griffin and Elgar
burned St. Ethelbert's minster, and all the town of Hereford.))

A.D. 1056. This year Bishop Egelric resigned his bishopric at
Durham, and retired to Peterborough minster; and his brother
Egelwine succeeded him. The worthy Bishop Athelstan died on the
fourth before the ides of February; and his body lies at
Hereford. To him succeeded Leofgar, who was Earl Harold's mass-
priest. He wore his knapsack in his priesthood, until he was a
bishop. He abandoned his chrism and his rood -- his ghostly
weapons -- and took to his spear and to his sword, after his
bishophood; and so marched to the field against Griffin the Welsh
king. (79) But he was there slain, and his priests with him, and
Elnoth the sheriff, and many other good men with them; and the
rest fled. This was eight nights before midsummer. Difficult is
it to relate all the vexation and the journeying, the marching
and the fatigue, the fall of men, and of horses also, which the
whole army of the English suffered, until Earl Leofric, and Earl
Harold, and Bishop Eldred, came together and made peace between
them; so that Griffin swore oaths, that he would be a firm and
faithful viceroy to King Edward. Then Bishop Eldred took to the
bishopric which Leofgar had before eleven weeks and four days.
The same year died Cona the emperor; and Earl Odda, whose body
lies at Pershore, and who was admitted a monk before his end;
which was on the second before the calends of September; a good
man and virtuous and truly noble.

A.D. 1057. This year came Edward Etheling, son of King Edmund,
to this land, and soon after died. His body is buried within St.
Paul's minster at London. He was brother's son to King Edward.
King Edmund was called Ironside for his valour. This etheling
King Knute had sent into Hungary, to betray him; but he there
grew in favour with good men, as God granted him, and it well
became him; so that he obtained the emperor's cousin in marriage,
and by her had a fair offspring. Her name was Agatha. We know
not for what reason it was done, that he should see his relation,
King Edward. Alas! that was a rueful time, and injurious to all
this nation -- that he ended his life so soon after he came to
England, to the misfortune of this miserable people. The same
year died Earl Leofric, on the second before the calends of
October; who was very wise before God, and also before the world;
and who benefited all this nation. (80) He lies at Coventry
(81): and his son Elgar took to his territory. This year died
Earl Ralph, on the twelfth before the calends of January; and
lies at Peterborough. Also died Bishop Heca, in Sussex; and
Egelric was elevated to his see. This year also died Pope
Victor; and Stephen was chosen pope, who was Abbot of Monut

((A.D. 1057. In this year Edward Etheling, King Edmund's son,
came hither to land, and soon after died- and his body is buried
within St. Paul's minster at London. And Pope Victor died, and
Stephen [IX.] was chosen pope: he was Abbot of Mont-Cassino. And
Leofric the earl died, and Elgar his son succeeded to the earldom
which the father before held.))

A.D. 1058. This year was Earl Elgar banished: but he soon came
in again by force, through Griffin's assistance: and a naval
armament came from Norway. It is tedious to tell how it all fell
out. In this same year Bishop Aldred consecrated the minster
church at Gloucester, which he himself had raised (82) to the
honour of God and St. Peter; and then went to Jerusalem (83) with
such dignity as no other man did before him, and betook himself
there to God. A worthy gift he also offered to our Lord's
sepulchre; which was a golden chalice of the value of five marks,
of very wonderful workmanship. In the same year died Pope
Stephen; and Benedict was appointed pope. He sent hither the
pall to Bishop Stigand; who as archbishop consecrated Egelric a
monk at Christ church, Bishop of Sussex; and Abbot Siward Bishop
of Rochester.

((A.D. 1058. This year died Pope Stephen, and Benedict was
consecrated pope: the same sent hither to land a pall to
Archbishop Stigand. And in this year died Heca, Bishop of
Sussex; and Archbishop Stigand ordained Algeric, a monk at
Christchurch, Bishop of Sussex, and Abbot Siward Bishop of

A.D. 1059. This year was Nicholas chosen pope, who had been
Bishop of Florence; and Benedict was expelled, who was pope
before. This year also was consecrated the steeple (84) at
Peterborough, on the sixteenth before the calends of November.

A.D. 1060. This year was a great earthquake on the Translation
of St. Martin, and King Henry died in France. Kinsey, Archbishop
of York, died on the eleventh before the calends of January; and
he lies at Peterborough. Bishop Aldred succeeded to the see, and
Walter to that of Herefordshire. Dudoc also died, who was Bishop
of Somersetshire; and Gisa the priest was appointed in his stead.

A.D. 1061. This year went Bishop Aldred to Rome after his pall;
which he received at the hands of Pope Nicholas. Earl Tosty and
his wife also went to Rome; and the bishop and the earl met with
great difficulty as they returned home. In the same year died
Bishop Godwin at St. Martin's, (85) on the seventh before the
ides of March; and in the self-same year died Wulfric, Abbot of
St. Augustine's, in the Easterweek, on the fourteenth before the
calends of May. Pope Nicholas also died; and Alexander was
chosen pope, who was Bishop of Lucca. When word came to the king
that the Abbot Wulfric was dead, then chose he Ethelsy, a monk of
the old minster, to succeed; who followed Archbishop Stigand, and
was consecrated abbot at Windsor on St. Augustine s mass-day.

((A.D. 1061. In this year died Dudoc, Bishop of Somerset, and
Giso succeeded. And in the same year died Godwin, Bishop of St.
Martin's, on the seventh before the ides of March. And in the
self-same year died Wulfric, Abbot of St. Augustine's, within
the Easter week, on the fourteenth before the kalends of May.
When word came to the king that Abbot Wulfric was departed, then
chose he Ethelsy the monk thereto, from the Old-Minster, who then
followed Archbishop Stigand, and was consecrated abbot at
Windsor, on St. Augustine's mass-day.))

A.D. 1063. This year went Earl Harold, after mid-winter, from
Gloucester to Rhyddlan; which belonged to Griffin: and that
habitation he burned, with his ships and all the rigging
belonging thereto; and put him to flight. Then in the gang-days
went Harold with his ships from Bristol about Wales; where he
made a truce with the people, and they gave him hostages. Tosty
meanwhile advanced with a land-force against them, and plundered
the land. But in the harvest of the same year was King Griffin
slain, on the nones of August, by his own men, through the war
that he waged with Earl Harold. He was king over all the Welsh
nation. And his head was brought to Earl Harold; who sent it to
the king, with his ship's head, and the rigging therewith. King
Edward committed the land to his two brothers, Blethgent and
Rigwatle; who swore oaths, and gave hostages to the king and to
the earl, that they would be faithful to him in all things, ready
to aid him everywhere by water and land, and would pay him such
tribute from the land as was paid long before to other kings.

((A.D. 1063. This year went Harold the earl, and his brother
Tosty the earl, as well with a land-force as a shipforce, into
Wales, and they subdued the land; and the people delivered
hostages to them, and submitted; and went afterwards and slew
their King Griffin, and brought to Harold his head: and he
appointed another king thereto.))

A.D. 1065. This year, before Lammas, ordered Earl Harold his men
to build at Portskeweth in Wales. But when he had begun, and
collected many materials, and thought to have King Edward there
for the purpose of hunting, even when it was all ready, came
Caradoc, son of Griffin, with all the gang that he could get, and
slew almost all that were building there; and they seized the
materials that were there got ready. Wist we not who first
advised the wicked deed. This was done on the mass-day of St.
Bartholomew. Soon after this all the thanes in Yorkshire and in
Northumberland gathered themselves together at York, and outlawed
their Earl Tosty; slaying all the men of his clan that they could
reach, both Danish and English; and took all his weapons in York,
with gold and silver, and all his money that they could anywhere
there find. They then sent after Morkar, son of Earl Elgar, and
chose him for their earl. He went south with all the shire, and
with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, till he
came to Northampton; where his brother Edwin came to meet him
with the men that were in his earldom. Many Britons also came
with him. Harold also there met them; on whom they imposed an
errand to King Edward, sending also messengers with him, and
requesting that they might have Morcar for their earl. This the
king granted; and sent back Harold to them, to Northampton, on
the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude; and announced to them the
same, and confirmed it by hand, and renewed there the laws of
Knute. But the Northern men did much harm about Northampton,
whilst he went on their errand: either that they slew men, and
burned houses and corn; or took all the cattle that they could
come at; which amounted to many thousands. Many hundred men also
they took, and led northward with them; so that not only that
shire, but others near it were the worse for many winters. Then
Earl Tosty and his wife, and all they who acted with him, went
south over sea with him to Earl Baldwin; who received them all:
and they were there all the winter. About midwinter King Edward
came to Westminster, and had the minster there consecrated, which
he had himself built to the honour of God, and St. Peter, and all
God's saints. This church-hallowing was on Childermas-day. He
died on the eve of twelfth-day; and he was buried on twelfth-day
in the same minster; as it is hereafter said.
Here Edward king, (86)
of Angles lord,
sent his stedfast
soul to Christ.
In the kingdom of God
a holy spirit!
He in the world here
abode awhile,
in the kingly throng
of council sage.
Four and twenty
winters wielding
the sceptre freely,
wealth he dispensed.
In the tide of health,
the youthful monarch,
offspring of Ethelred!
ruled well his subjects;
the Welsh and the Scots,
and the Britons also,
Angles and Saxons
relations of old.
So apprehend
the first in rank,
that to Edward all
the noble king
were firmly held
high-seated men.
Blithe-minded aye
was the harmless king;
though he long ere,
of land bereft,
abode in exile
wide on the earth;
when Knute o'ercame
the kin of Ethelred,
and the Danes wielded
the dear kingdom
of Engle-land.
Eight and twenty
winters' rounds
they wealth dispensed.
Then came forth
free in his chambers,
in royal array,
good, pure, and mild,
Edward the noble;
by his country defended --
by land and people.
Until suddenly came
the bitter Death
and this king so dear
snatched from the earth.
Angels carried
his soul sincere
into the light of heaven.
But the prudent king
had settled the realm
on high-born men --
on Harold himself,
the noble earl;
who in every season
faithfully heard
and obeyed his lord,
in word and deed;
nor gave to any
what might be wanted
by the nation's king.
This year also was Earl Harold hallowed to king; but he enjoyed
little tranquillity therein the while that he wielded the

((A.D. 1065. And the man-slaying was on St. Bartholomew's
mass-day. And then, after Michael's-mass, all the thanes in
Yorkshire went to York, and there slew all Earl Tosty's household
servants whom they might hear of, and took his treasures: and
Tosty was then at Britford with the king. And then, very soon
thereafter, was a great council at Northampton; and then at
Oxford on the day of Simon and Jude. And there was Harold the
earl, and would work their reconciliation if he might, but he
could not: but all his earldom him unanimously forsook and
outlawed, and all who with him lawlessness upheld, because he
robbed God first, and all those bereaved over whom he had power
of life and of land. And they then took to themselves Morkar for
earl; and Tosty went then over sea, and his wife with him, to
Baldwin's land, and they took up their winter residence at St.

A.D. 1066. This year came King Harold from York to Westminster,
on the Easter succeeding the midwinter when the king (Edward)
died. Easter was then on the sixteenth day before the calends of
May. Then was over all England such a token seen as no man ever
saw before. Some men said that it was the comet-star, which
others denominate the long-hair'd star. It appeared first on the
eve called "Litania major", that is, on the eighth before the
calends off May; and so shone all the week. Soon after this came
in Earl Tosty from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight, with as
large a fleet as he could get; and he was there supplied with
money and provisions. Thence he proceeded, and committed
outrages everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, until
he came to Sandwich. When it was told King Harold, who was in
London, that his brother Tosty was come to Sandwich, he gathered
so large a force, naval and military, as no king before collected
in this land; for it was credibly reported that Earl William from
Normandy, King Edward's cousin, would come hither and gain this
land; just as it afterwards happened. When Tosty understood that
King Harold was on the way to Sandwich, he departed thence, and
took some of the boatmen with him, willing and unwilling, and
went north into the Humber with sixty skips; whence he plundered
in Lindsey, and there slew many good men. When the Earls Edwin
and Morkar understood that, they came hither, and drove him from
the land. And the boatmen forsook him. Then he went to Scotland
with twelve smacks; and the king of the Scots entertained him,
and aided him with provisions; and he abode there all the summer.
There met him Harold, King of Norway, with three hundred ships.
And Tosty submitted to him, and became his man. (87) Then came
King Harold (88) to Sandwich, where he awaited his fleet; for it
was long ere it could be collected: but when it was assembled, he
went into the Isle of Wight, and there lay all the summer and the
autumn. There was also a land-force every where by the sea,
though it availed nought in the end. It was now the nativity of
St. Mary, when the provisioning of the men began; and no man
could keep them there any longer. They therefore had leave to go
home: and the king rode up, and the ships were driven to London;
but many perished ere they came thither. When the ships were
come home, then came Harald, King of Norway, north into the Tine,
unawares, with a very great sea-force -- no small one; that might
be, with three hundred ships or more; and Earl Tosty came to him
with all those that he had got; just as they had before said: and
they both then went up with all the fleet along the Ouse toward
York. (89) When it was told King Harold in the south, after he
had come from the ships, that Harald, King of Norway, and Earl
Tosty were come up near York, then went he northward by day and
night, as soon as he could collect his army. But, ere King
Harold could come thither, the Earls Edwin and Morkar had
gathered from their earldoms as great a force as they could get,
and fought with the enemy. (90) They made a great slaughter too;
but there was a good number of the English people slain, and
drowned, and put to flight: and the Northmen had possession of
the field of battle. It was then told Harold, king of the
English, that this had thus happened. And this fight was on the
eve of St. Matthew the apostle, which was Wednesday. Then after
the fight went Harold, King of Norway, and Earl Tosty into York
with as many followers as they thought fit; and having procured
hostages and provisions from the city, they proceeded to their
ships, and proclaimed full friendship, on condition that all
would go southward with them, and gain this land. In the midst
of this came Harold, king of the English, with all his army, on
the Sunday, to Tadcaster; where he collected his fleet. Thence
he proceeded on Monday throughout York. But Harald, King of
Norway, and Earl Tosty, with their forces, were gone from their
ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge; for that it was given them
to understand, that hostages would be brought to them there from
all the shire. Thither came Harold, king of the English,
unawares against them beyond the bridge; and they closed together
there, and continued long in the day fighting very severely.
There was slain Harald the Fair-hair'd, King of Norway, and Earl
Tosty, and a multitude of people with them, both of Normans and
English; (91) and the Normans that were left fled from the
English, who slew them hotly behind; until some came to their
ships, some were drowned, some burned to death, and thus
variously destroyed; so that there was little left: and the
English gained possession of the field. But there was one of the
Norwegians who withstood the English folk, so that they could not
pass over the bridge, nor complete the victory. An Englishman
aimed at him with a javelin, but it availed nothing. Then came
another under the bridge, who pierced him terribly inwards under
the coat of mail. And Harold, king of the English, then came
over the bridge, followed by his army; and there they made a
great slaughter, both of the Norwegians and of the Flemings. But
Harold let the king's son, Edmund, go home to Norway with all the
ships. He also gave quarter to Olave, the Norwegian king's son,
and to their bishop, and to the earl of the Orkneys, and to all
those that were left in the ships; who then went up to our king,
and took oaths that they would ever maintain faith and friendship
unto this land. Whereupon the King let them go home with twenty-
four ships. These two general battles were fought within five
nights. Meantime Earl William came up from Normandy into
Pevensey on the eve of St. Michael's mass; and soon after his
landing was effected, they constructed a castle at the port of
Hastings. This was then told to King Harold; and he gathered a
large force, and came to meet him at the estuary of Appledore.
William, however, came against him unawares, ere his army was
collected; but the king, nevertheless, very hardly encountered
him with the men that would support him: and there was a great
slaughter made on either side. There was slain King Harold, and
Leofwin his brother, and Earl Girth his brother, with many good
men: and the Frenchmen gained the field of battle, as God granted
them for the sins of the nation. Archbishop Aldred and the
corporation of London were then desirous of having child Edgar to
king, as he was quite natural to them; and Edwin and Morkar
promised them that they would fight with them. But the more
prompt the business should ever be, so was it from day to day the
later and worse; as in the end it all fared. This battle was
fought on the day of Pope Calixtus: and Earl William returned to
Hastings, and waited there to know whether the people would
submit to him. But when he found that they would not come to
him, he went up with all his force that was left and that came
since to him from over sea, and ravaged all the country that he
overran, until he came to Berkhampstead; where Archbishop Aldred
came to meet him, with child Edgar, and Earls Edwin and Morkar,
and all the best men from London; who submitted then for need,
when the most harm was done. It was very ill-advised that they
did not so before, seeing that God would not better things for
our sins. And they gave him hostages and took oaths: and he
promised them that he would be a faithful lord to them; though in
the midst of this they plundered wherever they went. Then on
midwinter's day Archbishop Aldred hallowed him to king at
Westminster, and gave him possession with the books of Christ,
and also swore him, ere that he would set the crown on his head,
that he would so well govern this nation as any before him best
did, if they would be faithful to him. Neverrhetess he laid very
heavy tribute on men, and in Lent went over sea to Normandy,
taking with him Archbishop Stigand, and Abbot Aylnoth of
Glastonbury, and the child Edgar, and the Earls Edwin, Morkar,
and Waltheof, and many other good men of England. Bishop Odo and
Earl William lived here afterwards, and wrought castles widely
through this country, and harassed the miserable people; and ever
since has evil increased very much. May the end be good, when
God will! In that same expedition (92) was Leofric, Abbot of
Peterborough; who sickened there, and came home, and died soon
after, on the night of Allhallow-mass. God honour his soul! In
his day was all bliss and all good at Peterborough. He was
beloved by all; so that the king gave to St. Peter and him the
abbey at Burton, and that at Coventry, which the Earl Leofric,
who was his uncle, had formerly made; with that of Croyland, and
that of Thorney. He did so much good to the minster of
Peterborough, in gold, and in silver, and in shroud, and in land,
as no other ever did before him, nor any one after him. But now
was Gilden-borough become a wretched borough. The monks then
chose for abbot Provost Brand, because he was a very good man,
and very wise; and sent him to Edgar Etheling, for that the
land-folk supposed that he should be king: and the etheling
received him gladly. When King William heard say that, he was
very wroth, and said that the abbot had renounced him: but good
men went between them, and reconciled them; because the abbot was
a good man. He gave the king forty marks of gold for his
reconciliation; and he lived but a little while after -- only
three years. Afterwards came all wretchedness and all evil to
the minster. God have mercy on it!

((A.D. 1066. This year died King Edward, and Harold the earl
succeeded to the kingdom, and held it forty weeks and one day.
And this year came William, and won England. And in this year
Christ-Church [Canterbury] was burned. And this year appeared a
comet on the fourteenth before the kalends of May.))

((A.D. 1066. ...And then he [Tosty] went thence, and did harm
everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, as far as
Sandwich. Then was it made known to King Harold, who was in
London, that Tosty his brother was come to Sandwich. Then
gathered he so great a ship-force, and also a land force, as no
king here in the land had before gathered, because it had been
soothly said unto him, that William the earl from Normandy, King
Edward's kinsman, would come hither and subdue this land: all as
it afterwards happened. When Tosty learned that King Harold was
on his way to Sandwich, then went he from Sandwich, and took some
of the boatmen with him, some willingly and some unwillingly; and
went then north into Humber, and there ravaged in Lindsey, and
there slew many good men. When Edwin the earl and Morcar the
earl understood that, then came they thither, and drove him out
of the land. And he went then to Scotland: and the king of Scots
protected him, and assisted him with provisions; and he there
abode all the summer. Then came King Harold to Sandwich, and
there awaited his fleet, because it was long before it could be
gathered together. And when his fleet was gathered together,
then went he into the Isle of Wight, and there lay all the summer
and the harvest; and a land-force was kept everywhere by the sea,
though in the end it was of no benefit. When it was the Nativity
of St. Mary, then were the men's provisions gone, and no man
could any longer keep them there. Then were the men allowed to
go home, and the king rode up, and the ships were dispatched to
London; and many perished before they came thither. When the
ships had reached home, then came King Harald from Norway, north
into Tyne, and unawares, with a very large ship-force, and no
small one; that might be, or more. And Tosty the earl came to
him with all that he had gotten, all as they had before agreed;
and then they went both, with all the fleet, along the Ouse, up
towards York. Then was it made known to King Harold in the
south, as he was come from on ship-board, that Harald King of
Norway and Tosty the earl were landed near York. Then went he
northward, day and night, as quickly as he could gather his
forces. Then, before that King Harold could come thither, then
gathered Edwin the earl and Morcar the earl from their earldom
as great a force as they could get together; and they fought
against the army, and made great slaughter: and there was much of
the English people slain, and drowned, and driven away in flight;
and the Northmen had possession of the place of carnage. And
this fight was on the vigil of St. Matthew the apostle, and it
was Wednesday. And then, after the fight, went Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl, into York, with as much people as
seemed meet to them. And they delivered hostages to them from
the city, and also assisted them with provisions; and so they
went thence to their ships, and they agreed upon a full peace, so
that they should all go with him south, and this land subdue.
Then, during this, came Harold, king of the Angles, with all his
forces, on the Sunday, to Tadcaster, and there drew up his force,
and went then on Monday throughout York; and Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl, and their forces, were gone from
their ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge, because it had been
promised them for a certainty, that there, from all the shire,
hostages should be brought to meet them. Then came Harold, king
of the English, against them, unawares, beyond the bridge, and
they there joined battle, and very strenuously, for a long time
of the day, continued fighting: and there was Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl slain, and numberless of the people
with them, as well of the Northmen as of the English: and the
Northmen fled from the English. Then was there one of the
Norwegians who withstood the English people, so that they might
not pass over the bridge, nor obtain the victory. Then an
Englishman aimed at him with a javelin, but availed nothing; and
then came another under the bridge, and pierced him terribly
inwards under the coat of mail. Then came Harold, king of the
English, over the bridge, and his forces onward with him, and
there made great slaughter, as well of Norwegians as of Flemings.
And the King's son, Edmund, Harold let go home to Norway, with
all the ships.))

((A.D. 1066. In this year was consecrated the minster at
Westminster, on Childer-mass-day. And King Edward died on the
eve of Twelfth-day; and he was buried on Twelfth-day within the
newly consecrated church at Westminster. And Harold the earl
succeeded to the kingdom of England, even as the king had granted
it to him, and men also had chosen him thereto; and he was
crowned as king on Twelfth-day. And that same year that he
became king, he went out with a fleet against William [Earl of
Normandy]; and the while, came Tosty the earl into Humber with
sixty ships. Edwin the earl came with a land-force and drove him
out; and the boatmen forsook him. And he went to Scotland with
twelve vessels; and Harald, the King of Norway, met him with
three hundred ships, and Tosty submitted to him; and they both
went into Humber, until they came to York. And Morcar the earl,
and Edwin the earl, fought against them; and the king of the
Norwegians had the victory. And it was made known to King Harold
how it there was done, and had happened; and he came there with a
great army of English men, and met him at Stanfordbridge, and
slew him and the earl Tosty, and boldly overcame all the army.
And the while, William the earl landed at Hastings, on St.
Michael's-day: and Harold came from the north, and fought against
him before all his army had come up: and there he fell, and his
two brothers, Girth and Leofwin; and William subdued this land.
And he came to Westminster, and Archbishop Aldred consecrated him
king, and men paid him tribute, delivered him hostages, and
afterwards bought their land. And then was Leofric, Abbot of
Peterborough, in that same expedition; and there he sickened, and
came home, and was dead soon thereafter, on All-hallows-mass-
night; God be merciful to his soul! In his day was all bliss and
all good in Peterborough; and he was dear to all people, so that
the king gave to St. Peter and to him the abbacy at Burton, and
that of Coventry, which Leofric the earl, who was his uncle,
before had made, and that of Crowland, and that of Thorney. And
he conferred so much of good upon the minster of Peterborough, in
gold, and in silver, and in vestments, and in land, as never any
other did before him, nor any after him. After, Golden-borough
became a wretched borough. Then chose the monks for abbot Brand
the provost, by reason that he was a very good man, and very
wise, and sent him then to Edgar the etheling, by reason that the
people of the land supposed that he should become king: and the
etheling granted it him then gladly. When King William heard say
that, then was he very wroth, and said that the abbot had
despised him. Then went good men between them, and reconciled
them, by reason that the abbot was a good man. Then gave he the
king forty marks of gold for a reconciliation; and then
thereafter, lived he a little while, but three years. After that
came every tribulation and every evil to the minster. God have
mercy on it!))

A.D. 1067. This year came the king back again to England on St.
Nicholas's day; and the same day was burned the church of Christ
at Canterbury. Bishop Wulfwy also died, and is buried at his see
in Dorchester. The child Edric and the Britons were unsettled
this year, and fought with the castlemen at Hereford, and did
them much harm. The king this year imposed a heavy guild on the
wretched people; but, notwithstanding, let his men always plunder
all the country that they went over; and then he marched to
Devonshire, and beset the city of Exeter eighteen days. There
were many of his army slain; out he had promised them well, and
performed ill; and the citizens surrendered the city because the
thanes had betrayed them. This summer the child Edgar departed,
with his mother Agatha, and his two sisters, Margaret and
Christina, and Merle-Sweyne, and many good men with them; and
came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm, who
entertained them all. Then began King Malcolm to yearn after the
child's sister, Margaret, to wife; but he and all his men long
refused; and she also herself was averse, and said that she would
neither have him nor any one else, if the Supreme Power would
grant, that she in her maidenhood might please the mighty Lord
with a carnal heart, in this short life, in pure continence. The
king, however, earnestly urged her brother, until he answered
Yea. And indeed he durst not otherwise; for they were come into
his kingdom. So that then it was fulfilled, as God had long ere
foreshowed; and else it could not be; as he himself saith in his
gospel: that "not even a sparrow on the ground may fall, without
his foreshowing." The prescient Creator wist long before what he
of her would have done; for that she should increase the glory of
God in this land, lead the king aright from the path of error,
bend him and his people together to a better way, and suppress
the bad customs which the nation formerly followed: all which she
afterwards did. The king therefore received her, though it was
against her will, and was pleased with her manners, and thanked
God, who in his might had given him such a match. He wisely
bethought himself, as he was a prudent man, and turned himself to
God, and renounced all impurity; accordingly, as the apostle
Paul, the teacher of all the gentries, saith: "Salvabitur vir
infidelis per mulierem fidelem; sic et mulier infidelis per virum
fidelem," etc.: that is in our language, "Full oft the
unbelieving husband is sanctified and healed through the
believing wife, and so belike the wife through the believing
husband." This queen aforesaid performed afterwards many useful
deeds in this land to the glory of God, and also in her royal
estate she well conducted herself, as her nature was. Of a
faithful and noble kin was she sprung. Her father was Edward
Etheling, son of King Edmund. Edmund was the son of Ethelred;
Ethelred the son of Edgar; Edgar the son of Edred; and so forth
in that royal line: and her maternal kindred goeth to the Emperor
Henry, who had the sovereignty over Rome. This year went out
Githa, Harold's mother, and the wives of many good men with her,
to the Flat-Holm, and there abode some time; and so departed
thence over sea to St. Omer's. This Easter came the king to
Winchester; and Easter was then on the tenth before the calends
of April. Soon after this came the Lady Matilda hither to this
land; and Archbishop Eldred hallowed her to queen at Westminster
on Whit Sunday. Then it was told the king, that the people in
the North had gathered themselves together, and would stand
against him if he came. Whereupon he went to Nottingham, and
wrought there a castle; and so advanced to York, and there
wrought two castles; and the same at Lincoln, and everywhere in
that quarter. Then Earl Gospatric and the best men went into
Scotland. Amidst this came one of Harold's sons from Ireland
with a naval force into the mouth of the Avon unawares, and
plundered soon over all that quarter; whence they went to
Bristol, and would have stormed the town; but the people bravely
withstood them. When they could gain nothing from the town, they
went to their ships with the booty which they had acquired by
plunder; and then they advanced upon Somersetshire, and there
went up; and Ednoth, master of the horse, fought with them; but
he was there slain, and many good men on either side; and those
that were left departed thence.

A.D. 1068. This year King William gave Earl Robert the earldom
over Northumberland; but the landsmen attacked him in the town of
Durham, and slew him, and nine hundred men with him. Soon
afterwards Edgar Etheling came with all the Northumbrians to
York; and the townsmen made a treaty with him: but King William
came from the South unawares on them with a large army, and put
them to flight, and slew on the spot those who could not escape;
which were many hundred men; and plundered the town. St. Peter's
minster he made a profanation, and all other places also he
despoiled and trampled upon; and the etheling went back again to
Scotland. After this came Harold's sons from Ireland, about
midsummer, with sixty-four ships into the mouth of the Taft,
where they unwarily landed: and Earl Breon came unawares against
them with a large army, and fought with them, and slew there all
the best men that were in the fleet; and the others, being small
forces, escaped to the ships: and Harold's sons went back to
Ireland again.

A.D. 1069. This year died Aldred, Archbishop of York; and he is
there buried, at his see. He died on the day of Protus and
Hyacinthus, having held the see with much dignity ten years
wanting only fifteen weeks. Soon after this came from Denmark
three of the sons of King Sweyne with two hundred and forty
ships, together with Earl Esborn and Earl Thurkill, into the
Humber; where they were met by the child Edgar, and Earl
Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and Earl Gospatric with the
Northumbrians, and all the landsmen; riding and marching full
merrily with an immense army: and so all unanimously advanced to
York; where they stormed and demolished the castle, and won
innumerable treasures therein; slew there many hundreds of
Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships; but, ere that the
shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and also
the holy minster of St. Peter had they entirely plundered, and
destroyed with fire. When the king heard this, then went he
northward with all the force that he could collect, despoiling
and laying waste the shire withal; whilst the fleet lay all the
winter in the Humber, where the king could not come at them. The
king was in York on Christmas Day, and so all the winter on land,
and came to Winchester at Easter. Bishop Egelric, who was at
Peterborough, was this year betrayed, and led to Westminster; and
his brother Egelwine was outlawed. This year also died Brand,
Abbot of Peterborough, on the fifth before the calends of

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Part 6: A.D. 1070 - 1101
Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #17

A.D. 1070. This year Landfranc, who was Abbot of Caen, came to
England; and after a few days he became Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was invested on the fourth before the calends of September in
his own see by eight bishops, his suffragans. The others, who
were not there, by messengers and by letter declared why they
could not be there. The same year Thomas, who was chosen Bishop
of York, came to Canterbury, to be invested there after the
ancient custom. But when Landfranc craved confirmation of his
obedience with an oath, he refused; and said, that he ought not
to do it. Whereupon Archbishop Landfranc was wroth, and bade the
bishops, who were come thither by Archbishop Landfranc's command
to do the service, and all the monks to unrobe themselves. And
they by his order so did. Thomas, therefore, for the time,
departed without consecration. Soon after this, it happened that
the Archbishop Landfranc went to Rome, and Thomas with him. When
they came thither, and had spoken about other things concerning
which they wished to speak, then began Thomas his speech: how he
came to Canterbury, and how the archbishop required obedience of
him with an oath; but he declined it. Then began the Archbishop
Landfranc to show with clear distinction, that what he craved he
craved by right; and with strong arguments he confirmed the same
before the Pope Alexander, and before all the council that was
collected there; and so they went home. After this came Thomas
to Canterbury; and all that the archbishop required of him he
humbly fulfilled, and afterwards received consecration. This
year Earl Waltheof agreed with the king; but in the Lent of the
same year the king ordered all the monasteries in England to be
plundered. In the same year came King Sweyne from Denmark into
the Humber; and the landsmen came to meet him, and made a treaty
with him; thinking that he would overrun the land. Then came
into Ely Christien, the Danish bishop, and Earl Osbern, and the
Danish domestics with them; and the English people from all the
fen-lands came to them; supposing that they should win all that
land. Then the monks of Peterborough heard say, that their own
men would plunder the minster; namely Hereward and his gang:
because they understood that the king had given the abbacy to a
French abbot, whose name was Thorold; -- that he was a very stern
man, and was then come into Stamford with all his Frenchmen. Now
there was a churchwarden, whose name was Yware; who took away by
night all that he could, testaments, mass-hackles, cantel-copes,
and reefs, and such other small things, whatsoever he could; and
went early, before day, to the Abbot Thorold; telling him that he
sought his protection, and informing him how the outlaws were
coming to Peterborough, and that he did all by advice of the
monks. Early in the morning came all the outlaws with many
ships, resolving to enter the minster; but the monks withstood,
so that they could not come in. Then they laid on fire, and
burned all the houses of the monks, and all the town except one
house. Then came they in through fire at the Bull-hithe gate;
where the monks met them, and besought peace of them. But they
regarded nothing. They went into the minster, climbed up to the
holy rood, took away the diadem from our Lord's head, all of pure
gold, and seized the bracket that was underneath his feet, which
was all of red gold. They climbed up to the steeple, brought
down the table that was hid there, which was all of gold and
silver, seized two golden shrines, and nine of silver, and took
away fifteen large crucifixes, of gold and of silver; in short,
they seized there so much gold and silver, and so many treasures,
in money, in raiment, and in books, as no man could tell another;
and said, that they did it from their attachment to the minster.
Afterwards they went to their ships, proceeded to Ely, and
deposited there all the treasure. The Danes, believing that they
should overcome the Frenchmen, drove out all the monks; leaving
there only one, whose name was Leofwine Lang, who lay sick in the
infirmary. Then came Abbot Thorold and eight times twenty
Frenchmen with him, all full-armed. When he came thither, he
found all within and without consumed by fire, except the church
alone; but the outlaws were all with the fleet, knowing that he
would come thither. This was done on the fourth day before the
nones of June. The two kings, William and Sweyne, were now
reconciled; and the Danes went out of Ely with all the aforesaid
treasure, and carried it away with them. But when they came into
the middle of the sea, there came a violent storm, and dispersed
all the ships wherein the treasures were. Some went to Norway,
some to Ireland, some to Denmark. All that reached the latter,
consisted of the table, and some shrines, and some crucifixes,
and many of the other treasures; which they brought to a king's
town, called ---, and deposited it all there in the church.
Afterwards through their own carelessness, and through their
drunkenness, in one night the church and all that was therein was
consumed by fire. Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned
and plundered. Almighty God have mercy on it through his great
goodness. Thus came the Abbot Thorold to Peterborough; and the
monks too returned, and performed the service of Christ in the
church, which had before stood a full week without any kind of
rite. When Bishop Aylric heard it, he excommunicated all the men
who that evil deed had done. There was a great famine this year:
and in the summer came the fleet in the north from the Humber
into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and made afterwards
for Denmark. Earl Baldwin also died, and his son Arnulf
succeeded to the earldom. Earl William, in conjunction with the
king of the Franks, was to be his guardian; but Earl Robert came
and slew his kinsman Arnulf and the earl, put the king to flight,
and slew many thousands of his men.

A.D. 1071. This year Earl Edwin and Earl Morkar fled out, (93)
and roamed at random in woods and in fields. Then went Earl
Morkar to Ely by ship; but Earl Edwin was treacherously slain by
his own men. Then came Bishop Aylwine, and Siward Barn, and many
hundred men with them, into Ely. When King William heard that,
then ordered he out a naval force and land force, and beset the
land all about, and wrought a bridge, and went in; and the naval
force at the same time on the sea-side. And the outlaws then all
surrendered; that was, Bishop Aylwine, and Earl Morkar, and all
that were with them; except Hereward (94) alone, and all those
that would join him, whom he led out triumphantly. And the king
took their ships, and weapons, and many treasures; (95) and all
the men he disposed of as he thought proper. Bishop Aylwine he
sent to Abingdon, where he died in the beginning of the winter.

A.D. 1072. This year King William led a naval force and a land
force to Scotland, and beset that land on the sea-side with
ships, whilst he led his land-force in at the Tweed; (96) but he
found nothing there of any value. King Malcolm, however, came,
and made peace with King William, and gave hostages, and became
his man; whereupon the king returned home with all his force.
This year died Bishop Aylric. He had been invested Bishop of
York; but that see was unjustly taken from him, and he then had
the bishopric of Durham given him; which he held as long as he
chose, but resigned it afterwards, and retired to Peterborough
minster; where he abode twelve years. After that King William
won England, then took he him from Peterborough, and sent him to
Westminster; where he died on the ides of October, and he is
there buried, within the minster, in the porch of St. Nicholas.

A.D. 1073. This year led King William an army, English and
French, over sea, and won the district of Maine; which the
English very much injured by destroying the vineyards, burning
the towns, and spoiling the land. But they subdued it all into
the hand of King William, and afterwards returned home to

A.D. 1074. This year King William went over sea to Normandy; and
child Edgar came from Flanders into Scotland on St. Grimbald's
mass-day; where King Malcolm and his sister Margaret received him
with much pomp. At the same time sent Philip, the King of
France, a letter to him, bidding him to come to him, and he would
give him the castle of Montreuil; that he might afterwards daily
annoy his enemies. What then? King Malcolm and his sister
Margaret gave him and his men great presents, and many treasures;
in skins ornamented with purple, in pelisses made of martin-
skins, of grey-skins, and of ermine-skins, in palls, and in
vessels of gold and silver; and conducted him and his crew with
great pomp from his territory. But in their voyage evil befel
them; for when they were out at sea, there came upon them such
rough weather, and the stormy sea and the strong wind drove them
so violently on the shore, that all their ships burst, and they
also themselves came with difficulty to the land. Their treasure
was nearly all lost, and some of his men also were taken by the
French; but he himself and his best men returned again to
Scotland, some roughly travelling on foot, and some miserably
mounted. Then King Malcolm advised him to send to King William
over sea, to request his friendship, which he did; and the king
gave it him, and sent after him. Again, therefore, King Malcolm
and his sister gave him and all his men numberless treasures, and
again conducted him very magnificently from their territory. The
sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and went all the way
with him; ordering meat and fodder to be found for him at every
castle to which they came, until they came over sea to the king.
Then King William received him with much pomp; and he was there
afterwards in his court, enjoying such rights as he confirmed to
him by law.

A.D. 1075. This year King William gave Earl Ralph the daughter
of William Fitz-Osborne to wife. This same Ralph was British on
his mother's side; but his father, whose name was also Ralph, was
English; and born in Norfolk. The king therefore gave his son
the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; and he then led the bride to
There was that bride-ale
The source of man's bale.
There was Earl Roger, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops, and abbots;
who there resolved, that they would drive the king out of the
realm of England. But it was soon told the king in Normandy how
it was determined. It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph who were the
authors of that plot; and who enticed the Britons to them, and
sent eastward to Denmark after a fleet to assist them. Roger
went westward to his earldom, and collected his people there, to
the king's annoyance, as he thought; but it was to the great
disadvantage of himself. He was however prevented. Ralph also
in his earldom would go forth with his people; but the castlemen
that were in England and also the people of the land, came
against him, and prevented him from doing anything. He escaped
however to the ships at Norwich. (97) And his wife was in the
castle; which she held until peace was made with her; when she
went out of England, with all her men who wished to join her.
The king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger, his
relative, and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof went over
sea, and bewrayed himself; but he asked forgiveness, and
proffered gifts of ransom. The king, however, let him off
lightly, until he (98) came to England; when he had him seized.
Soon after that came east from Denmark two hundred ships; wherein
were two captains, Cnute Swainson, and Earl Hacco; but they durst
not maintain a fight with King William. They went rather to
York, and broke into St. Peter's minster, and took therein much
treasure, and so went away. They made for Flanders over sea; but
they all perished who were privy to that design; that was, the
son of Earl Hacco, and many others with him. This year died the
Lady Edgitha, who was the relict of King Edward, seven nights
before Christmas, at Winchester; and the king caused her to be
brought to Westminster with great pomp; and he laid her with King
Edward, her lord. And the king was then at Westminster, at
midwinter; where all the Britons were condemned who were at the
bride-ale at Norwich. Some were punished with blindness; some
were driven from the land; and some were towed to Scandinavia.
So were the traitors of King William subdued.

A.D. 1076. This year died Sweyne, King of Denmark; and Harold
his son took to the kingdom. And the king gave the abbacy of
Westminster to Abbot Vitalis, who had been Abbot of Bernay. This
year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester, on the mass-
day of St. Petronilla; (99) and his body was carried to Croyland,
where he lies buried. King William now went over sea, and led
his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the
Bretons defended it, until the king came from France; whereupon
William departed thence, having lost there both men and horses,
and many of his treasures.

A.D. 1077. This year were reconciled the king of the Franks and
William, King of England. But it continued only a little while.
This year was London burned, one night before the Assumption of
St. Mary, so terribly as it never was before, since it was built.
This year the moon was eclipsed three nights before Candlemas;
and in the same year died Aylwy, the prudent Abbot of Evesham, on
the fourteenth day before the calends of March, on the mass-day
of St. Juliana; and Walter was appointed abbot in his stead; and
Bishop Herman also died, on the tenth day before the calends of
March, who was Bishop in Berkshire, and in Wiltshire, and in
Dorsetshire. This year also King Malcolm won the mother of
Malslaythe.... and all his best men, and all his treasures, and
his cattle; and he himself not easily escaped.... This year also
was the dry summer; and wild fire came upon many shires, and
burned many towns; and also many cities were ruined thereby.

A.D. 1079. This year Robert, the son of King William, deserted
from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders; because his
father would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy; which he
himself, and also King Philip with his permission, had given him.
The best men that were in the land also had sworn oaths of
allegiance to him, and taken him for their lord. This year,
therefore, Robert fought with his father, without Normandy, by a
castle called Gerberoy; and wounded him in the hand; and his
horse, that he sat upon, was killed under him; and he that
brought him another was killed there right with a dart. That was
Tookie Wiggodson. Many were there slain, and also taken. His
son William too was there wounded; but Robert returned to
Flanders. We will not here, however, record any more injury that
he did his father. This year came King Malcolm from Scotland
into England, betwixt the two festivals of St. Mary, with a large
army, which plundered Northumberland till it came to the Tine,
and slew many hundreds of men, and carried home much coin, and
treasure, and men in captivity.

A.D. 1080. This year was Bishop Walker slain in Durham, at a
council; and an hundred men with him, French and Flemish. He
himself was born in Lorrain. This did the Northumbrians in the
month of May. (100)

A.D. 1081. This year the king led an army into Wales, and there
freed many hundreds of men.

A.D. 1082. This year the king seized Bishop Odo; and this year
also was a great famine.

A.D. 1083. This year arose the tumult at Glastonbury betwixt the
Abbot Thurstan and his monks. It proceeded first from the
abbot's want of wisdom, that he misgoverned his monks in many
things. But the monks meant well to him; and told him that he
should govern them rightly, and love them, and they would be
faithful and obedient to him. The abbot, however, would hear
nothing of this; but evil entreated them, and threatened them
worse. One day the abbot went into the chapter-house, and spoke
against the monks, and attempted to mislead them; (101) and sent
after some laymen, and they came full-armed into the chapter-
house upon the monks. Then were the monks very much afraid (102)
of them, and wist not what they were to do, but they shot
forward, and some ran into the church, and locked the doors after
them. But they followed them into the minster, and resolved to
drag them out, so that they durst not go out. A rueful thing
happened on that day. The Frenchmen broke into the choir, and
hurled their weapons toward the altar, where the monks were; and
some of the knights went upon the upper floor, (103) and shot
their arrows downward incessantly toward the sanctuary; so that
on the crucifix that stood above the altar they stuck many
arrows. And the wretched monks lay about the altar, and some
crept under, and earnestly called upon God, imploring his mercy,
since they could not obtain any at the hands of men. What can we
say, but that they continued to shoot their arrows; whilst the
others broke down the doors, and came in, and slew (104) some of
the monks to death, and wounded many therein; so that the blood
came from the altar upon the steps, and from the steps on the
floor. Three there were slain to death, and eighteen wounded.
And in this same year departed Matilda, queen of King William, on
the day after All-Hallow-mass. And in the same year also, after
mid-winter, the king ordained a large and heavy contribution
(105) over all England; that was, upon each hide of land, two and
seventy pence.

A.D. 1084. In this year died Wulfwold, Abbot of Chertsey, on the
thirteenth day before the calends of May.

A.D. 1085. In this year men reported, and of a truth asserted,
that Cnute, King of Denmark, son of King Sweyne, was coming
hitherward, and was resolved to win this land, with the
assistance of Robert, Earl of Flanders; (106) for Cnute had
Robert's daughter. When William, King of England, who was then
resident in Normandy (for he had both England and Normandy),
understood this, he went into England with so large an army of
horse and foot, from France and Brittany, as never before sought
this land; so that men wondered how this land could feed all that
force. But the king left the army to shift for themselves
through all this land amongst his subjects, who fed them, each
according to his quota of land. Men suffered much distress this
year; and the king caused the land to be laid waste about the sea
coast; that, if his foes came up, they might not have anything on
which they could very readily seize. But when the king
understood of a truth that his foes were impeded, and could not
further their expedition, (107) then let he some of the army go
to their own land; but some he held in this land over the winter.
Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Glocester with his
council, and held there his court five days. And afterwards the
archbishop and clergy had a synod three days. There was
Mauritius chosen Bishop of London, William of Norfolk, and Robert
of Cheshire. These were all the king's clerks. After this had
the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his
council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort
of men. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire;
commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were
in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon
the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the
shire." Also he commissioned them to record in writing, "How
much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his
abbots, and his earls;" and though I may be prolix and tedious,
"What, or how much, each man had, who was an occupier of land in
England, either in land or in stock, and how much money it were
worth." So very narrowly, indeed, did he commission them to
trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard
(108) of land, nay, moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he
thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a
swine was there left, that was not set down in his writ. And all
the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him. (109)

A.D. 1086. This year the king bare his crown, and held his
court, in Winchester at Easter; and he so arranged, that he was
by the Pentecost at Westminster, and dubbed his son Henry a
knight there. Afterwards he moved about so that he came by
Lammas to Sarum; where he was met by his councillors; and all the
landsmen that were of any account over all England became this
man's vassals as they were; and they all bowed themselves before
him, and became his men, and swore him oaths of allegiance that
they would against all other men be faithful to him. Thence he
proceeded into the Isle of Wight; because he wished to go into
Normandy, and so he afterwards did; though he first did according
to his custom; he collected a very large sum from his people,
wherever he could make any demand, whether with justice or
otherwise. Then he went into Normandy; and Edgar Etheling, the
relation of King Edward, revolted from him, for he received not
much honour from him; but may the Almighty God give him honour
hereafter. And Christina, the sister of the etheling, went into
the monastery of Rumsey, and received the holy veil. And the
same year there was a very heavy season, and a swinkful and
sorrowful year in England, in murrain of cattle, and corn and
fruits were at a stand, and so much untowardness in the weather,
as a man may not easily think; so tremendous was the thunder and
lightning, that it killed many men; and it continually grew worse
and worse with men. May God Almighty better it whenever it be
his will.

A.D. 1087. After the birth of our Lord and Saviour Christ, one
thousand and eighty-seven winters; in the one and twentieth year
after William began to govern and direct England, as God granted
him, was a very heavy and pestilent season in this land. Such a
sickness came on men, that full nigh every other man was in the
worst disorder, that is, in the diarrhoea; and that so
dreadfully, that many men died in the disorder. Afterwards came,
through the badness of the weather as we before mentioned, so
great a famine over all England, that many hundreds of men died a
miserable death through hunger. Alas! how wretched and how
rueful a time was there! When the poor wretches lay full nigh
driven to death prematurely, and afterwards came sharp hunger,
and dispatched them withall! Who will not be penetrated with
grief at such a season? or who is so hardhearted as not to weep
at such misfortune? Yet such things happen for folks' sins, that
they will not love God and righteousness. So it was in those
days, that little righteousness was in this land with any men but
with the monks alone, wherever they fared well. The king and the
head men loved much, and overmuch, covetousness in gold and in
silver; and recked not how sinfully it was got, provided it came
to them. The king let his land at as high a rate as he possibly
could; then came some other person, and bade more than the former
one gave, and the king let it to the men that bade him more.
Then came the third, and bade yet more; and the king let it to
hand to the men that bade him most of all: and he recked not how
very sinfully the stewards got it of wretched men, nor how many
unlawful deeds they did; but the more men spake about right law,
the more unlawfully they acted. They erected unjust tolls, and
many other unjust things they did, that are difficult to reckon.
Also in the same year, before harvest, the holy minster of St.
Paul, the episcopal see in London, was completely burned, with
many other minsters, and the greatest part, and the richest of
the whole city. So also, about the same time, full nigh each
head-port in all England was entirely burned. Alas! rueful and
woeful was the fate of the year that brought forth so many
misfortunes. In the same year also, before the Assumption of St.
Mary, King William went from Normandy into France with an army,
and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king, and slew many of
his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters
that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading
the life of anachorets, were burned therein. This being thus
done, King William returned to Normandy. Rueful was the thing he
did; but a more rueful him befel. How more rueful? He fell
sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What shall I say? Sharp
death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also.
He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St.
Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster, which
he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold
gifts. Alas! how false and how uncertain is this world's weal!
He that was before a rich king, and lord of many lands, had not
then of all his land more than a space of seven feet! and he
that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered
with mould! He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called
Robert, who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called
William, who wore the crown after him in England; and the third,
called Henry, to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure. If
any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour
he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write
about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon
him, and lived sometime in his court. This King William then
that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more
splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were. He was
mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure
severe to the men that gainsayed his will. On that same spot
where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a
mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it. In
his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also
very many others over all England. This land was moreover well
filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St.
Benedict. But such was the state of Christianity in his time,
that each man followed what belonged to his profession -- he that
would. He was also very dignified. Thrice he bare his crown
each year, as oft as he was in England. At Easter he bare it in
Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in
Glocester. And then were with him all the rich men over all
England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls,
thanes and knights. So very stern was he also and hot, that no
man durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his
custody, who acted against his will. Bishops he hurled from
their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into
prison. At length he spared not his own brother Odo, who was a
very rich bishop in Normandy. At Baieux was his episcopal stall;
and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king. He
had an earldom in England; and when the king was in Normandy,
then was he the mightiest man in this land. Him he confined in
prison. But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that
good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any
account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of
gold. No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done
to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will,
he soon lost the limb that he played with. He truly reigned over
England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that
there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had
it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.
(110) The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought
castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal. So also he subdued
Scotland by his great strength. As to Normandy, that was his
native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine;
and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won
Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons. Assuredly in his
time had men much distress, and very many sorrows. Castles he
let men build, and miserably swink the poor. The king himself
was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of
gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his
people, for little need, by right and by unright. He was fallen
into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal. He made many
deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever
slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight. As
he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved
the tall deer as if he were their father. Likewise he decreed by
the hares, that they should go free. His rich men bemoaned it,
and the poor men shuddered at it. But he was so stern, that he
recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal
the king's will, if they would live, or have land, or
possessions, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should
presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men. May the
Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of
his sins! These things have we written concerning him, both good
and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and
flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to
the kingdom of heaven. Many things may we write that were done
in this same year. So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a
nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned
aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that
ever could be. They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him
oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church. It
happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads
upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their
dominion. But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent
everywhere into each land, and desired assistance. And they came
to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went
and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land
again, through God's assistance. In this land also, in the same
year, died many rich men; Stigand, Bishop of Chichester, and the
Abbot of St. Augustine, and the Abbot of Bath, and the Abbot of
Pershore, and the lord of them all, William, King of England,
that we spoke of before. After his death his son, called William
also as the father, took to the kingdom, and was blessed to king
by Archbishop Landfranc at Westminster three days ere Michaelmas
day. And all the men in England submitted to him, and swore
oaths to him. This being thus done, the king went to Winchester,
and opened the treasure house, and the treasures that his father
had gathered, in gold, and in silver, and in vases, and in palls,
and in gems, and in many other valuable things that are difficult
to enumerate. Then the king did as his father bade him ere he
was dead; he there distributed treasures for his father's soul to
each monastery that was in England; to some ten marks of gold, to
some six, to each upland (111) church sixty pence. And into each
shire were sent a hundred pounds of money to distribute amongst
poor men for his soul. And ere he departed, he bade that they
should release all the men that were in prison under his power.
And the king was on the midwinter in London.

A.D. 1088. In this year was this land much stirred, and filled
with great treachery; so that the richest Frenchmen that were in
this land would betray their lord the king, and would have his
brother Robert king, who was earl in Normandy. In this design
was engaged first Bishop Odo, and Bishop Gosfrith, and William,
Bishop of Durham. So well did the king by the bishop [Odo] that
all England fared according to his counsel, and as he would. And
the bishop thought to do by him as Judas Iscariot did by our
Lord. And Earl Roger was also of this faction; and much people
was with him all Frenchmen. This conspiracy was formed in Lent.
As soon as Easter came, then went they forth, and harrowed, and
burned, and wasted the king's farms; and they despoiled the lands
of all the men that were in the king's service. And they each of
them went to his castle, and manned it, and provisioned it as
well as they could. Bishop Gosfrith, and Robert the peace-
breaker, went to Bristol, and plundered it, and brought the spoil
to the castle. Afterwards they went out of the castle, and
plundered Bath, and all the land thereabout; and all the honor
(112) of Berkeley they laid waste. And the men that eldest were
of Hereford, and all the shire forthwith, and the men of
Shropshire, with much people of Wales, came and plundered and
burned in Worcestershire, until they came to the city itself,
which it was their design to set on fire, and then to rifle the
minster, and win the king's castle to their hands. The worthy
Bishop Wulfstan, seeing these things, was much agitated in his
mind, because to him was betaken the custody of the castle.
Nevertheless his hired men went out of the castle with few
attendants, and, through God's mercy and the bishop's merits,
slew or took five hundred men, and put all the others to flight.
The Bishop of Durham did all the harm that he could over all by
the north. Roger was the name of one of them; (113) who leaped
into the castle at Norwich, and did yet the worst of all over all
that land. Hugh also was one, who did nothing better either in
Leicestershire or in Northamptonshire. The Bishop Odo being one,
though of the same family from which the king himself was
descended, went into Kent to his earldom, and greatly despoiled
it; and having laid waste the lands of the king and of the
archbishop withal, he brought the booty into his castle at
Rochester. When the king understood all these things, and what
treachery they were employing against him, then was he in his
mind much agitated. He then sent after Englishmen, described to
them his need, earnestly requested their support, and promised
them the best laws that ever before were in this land; each
unright guild he forbade, and restored to the men their woods and
chaces. But it stood no while. The Englishmen however went to
the assistance of the king their lord. They advanced toward
Rochester, with a view to get possession of the Bishop Odo; for
they thought, if they had him who was at first the head of the
conspiracy, they might the better get possession of all the
others. They came then to the castle at Tunbridge; and there
were in the castle the knights of Bishop Odo, and many others who
were resolved to hold it against the king. But the Englishmen
advanced, and broke into the castle, and the men that were
therein agreed with the king. The king with his army went toward
Rochester. And they supposed that the bishop was therein; but it
was made known to the king that the bishop was gone to the castle
at Pevensea. And the king with his army went after, and beset
the castle about with a very large force full six weeks. During
this time the Earl of Normandy, Robert, the king's brother,
gathered a very considerable force, and thought to win England
with the support of those men that were in this land against the
king. And he sent some of his men to this land, intending to
come himself after. But the Englishmen that guarded the sea
lighted upon some of the men, and slew them, and drowned more
than any man could tell. When provisions afterwards failed those
within the castle, they earnestly besought peace, and gave
themselves up to the king; and the bishop swore that he would
depart out of England, and no more come on this land, unless the
king sent after him, and that he would give up the castle at
Rochester. Just as the bishop was going with an intention to
give up the castle, and the king had sent his men with him, then
arose the men that were in the castle, and took the bishop and
the king's men, and put them into prison. In the castle were
some very good knights; Eustace the Young, and the three sons of
Earl Roger, and all the best born men that were in this land or
in Normandy. When the king understood this thing, then went he
after with the army that he had there, and sent over all England.
and bade that each man that was faithful should come to him,
French and English, from sea-port and from upland. Then came to
him much people; and he went to Rochester, and beset the castle,
until they that were therein agreed, and gave up the castle. The
Bishop Odo with the men that were in the castle went over sea,
and the bishop thus abandoned the dignity that he had in this
land. The king afterwards sent an army to Durham, and allowed it
to beset the castle, and the bishop agreed, and gave up the
castle, and relinquished his bishopric, and went to Normandy.
Many Frenchmen also abandoned their lands, and went over sea; and
the king gave their lands to the men that were faithful to him.

A.D. 1089. In this year the venerable father and favourer of
monks, Archbishop Landfranc, departed this life; but we hope that
he is gone to the heavenly kingdom. There was also over all
England much earth-stirring on the third day before the ides of
August, and it was a very late year in corn, and in every kind of
fruits, so that many men reaped their corn about Martinmas, and
yet later.

A.D. 1090. Indiction XIII. These things thus done, just as we
have already said above, by the king, and by his brother and by
this men, the king was considering how he might wreak his
vengeance on his brother Robert, harass him most, and win
Normandy of him. And indeed through his craft, or through
bribery, he got possession of the castle at St. Valeri, and the
haven; and so he got possession of that at Albemarle. And
therein he set his knights; and they did harm to the land in
harrowing and burning. After this he got possession of more
castles in the land; and therein lodged his horsemen. When the
Earl of Normandy, Robert, understood that his sworn men deceived
him, and gave up their castles to do him harm, then sent he to
his lord, Philip, king of the Franks; and he came to Normandy
with a large army, and the king and the earl with an immense
force beset the castle about, wherein were the men of the King of
England. But the King William of England sent to Philip, king of
the Franks; and he for his love, or for his great treasure,
abandoned thus his subject the Earl Robert and his land; and
returned again to France, and let them so remain. And in the
midst of these things this land was much oppressed by unlawful
exactions and by many other misfortunes.

A.D. 1091. In this year the King William held his court at
Christmas in Westminster, and thereafter at Candlemas he went,
for the annoyance of his brother, out of England into Normandy.
Whilst he was there, their reconciliation took place, on the
condition, that the earl put into his hands Feschamp, and the
earldom of Ou, and Cherbourg; and in addition to this, that the
king's men should be secure in the castles that they had won
against the will of the earl. And the king in return promised
him those many [castles] that their father had formerly won, and
also to reduce those that had revolted from the earl, also all
that his father had there beyond, except those that he had then
given the king, and that all those, that in England before for
the earl had lost their land, should have it again by this
treaty, and that the earl should have in England just so much as
was specified in this agreement. And if the earl died without a
son by lawful wedlock, the king should be heir of all Normandy;
and by virtue of this same treaty, if the king died, the earl
should be heir of all England. To this treaty swore twelve of
the best men of the king's side, and twelve of the earl's, though
it stood but a little while afterwards. In the midst of this
treaty was Edgar Etheling deprived of the land that the earl had
before permitted him to keep in hand; and he went out of Normandy
to the king, his sister's husband, in Scotland, and to his
sister. Whilst the King William was out of England, the King
Malcolm of Scotland came hither into England, and overran a great
deal of it, until the good men that governed this land sent an
army against him and repulsed him. When the King William in
Normandy heard this, then prepared he his departure, and came to
England, and his brother, the Earl Robert, with him; and he soon
issued an order to collect a force both naval and military; but
the naval force, ere it could come to Scotland, perished almost
miserably, a few days before St. Michael's mass. And the king
and his brother proceeded with the land-force; but when the King
Malcolm heard that they were resolved to seek him with an army,
he went with his force out of Scotland into Lothaine in England,
and there abode. When the King William came near with his army,
then interceded between them Earl Robert, and Edgar Etheling, and
so made the peace of the kings, that the King Malcolm came to our
king, and did homage, (114) promising all such obedience as he
formerly paid to his father; and that he confirmed with an oath.
And the King William promised him in land and in all things
whatever he formerly had under his father. In this settlement
was also Edgar Etheling united with the king. And the kings then
with much satisfaction departed; yet that stood but a little
while. And the Earl Robert tarried here full nigh until
Christmas with the king, and during this time found but little of
the truth of their agreement; and two days before that tide he
took ship in the Isle of Wight, and went into Normandy, and Edgar
Etheling with him.

A.D. 1092. In this year the King William with a large army went
north to Carlisle, and restored the town, and reared the castle,
and drove out Dolphin that before governed the land, and set his
own men in the castle, and then returned hither southward. And a
vast number of rustic people with wives and with cattle he sent
thither, to dwell there in order to till the land.

A.D. 1093. In this year, during Lent, was the King William at
Glocester so sick, that he was by all reported dead. And in his
illness he made many good promises to lead his own life aright;
to grant peace and protection to the churches of God, and never
more again with fee to sell; to have none but righteous laws
amongst his people. The archbishopric of Canterbury, that before
remained in his own hand, he transferred to Anselm, who was
before Abbot of Bec; to Robert his chancellor the bishopric of
Lincoln; and to many minsters he gave land; but that he
afterwards took away, when he was better, and annulled all the
good laws that he promised us before. Then after this sent the
King of Scotland, and demanded the fulfilment of the treaty that
was promised him. And the King William cited him to Glocester,
and sent him hostages to Scotland; and Edgar Etheling,
afterwards, and the men returned, that brought him with great
dignity to the king. But when he came to the king, he could not
be considered worthy either of our king's speech, or of the
conditions that were formerly promised him. For this reason
therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King
Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he
gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more
hostility than behoved him; and Robert, the Earl of
Northumberland, surrounded him unawares with his men, and slew
him. Morel of Barnborough slew him, who was the earl's steward,
and a baptismal friend (115) of King Malcolm. With him was also
slain Edward his son; who after him should have been king, if he
had lived. When the good Queen Margaret heard this -- her most
beloved lord and son thus betrayed she was in her mind almost
distracted to death. She with her priests went to church, and
performed her rites, and prayed before God, that she might give
up the ghost. And the Scots then chose (116) Dufenal to king,
Malcolm's brother, and drove out all the English that formerly
were with the King Malcolm. When Duncan, King Malcolm's son,
heard all that had thus taken place (he was then in the King
William's court, because his father had given him as a hostage to
our king's father, and so he lived here afterwards), he came to
the king, and did such fealty as the king required at his hands;
and so with his permission went to Scotland, with all the support
that he could get of English and French, and deprived his uncle
Dufenal of the kingdom, and was received as king. But the Scots
afterwards gathered some force together, and slew full nigh all
his men; and he himself with a few made his escape. (117)
Afterwards they were reconciled, on the condition that he never
again brought into the land English or French.

A.D. 1094. This year the King William held his court at
Christmas in Glocester; and messengers came to him thither from
his brother Robert of Normandy; who said that his brother
renounced all peace and conditions, unless the king would fulfil
all that they had stipulated in the treaty; and upon that he
called him forsworn and void of truth, unless he adhered to the
treaty, or went thither and explained himself there, where the
treaty was formerly made and also sworn. Then went the king to
Hastings at Candlemas; and whilst he there abode waiting the
weather, he let hallow the minster at Battel, and deprived
Herbert Losang, the Bishop of Thetford, of his staff; and
thereafter about mid-Lent went over sea into Normandy. After he
came, thither, he and his brother Robert, the earl, said that
they should come together in peace (and so they did), and might
be united. Afterwards they came together with the same men that
before made the treaty, and also confirmed it by oaths; and all
the blame of breaking the treaty they threw upon the king; but he
would not confess this, nor even adhere to the treaty; and for
this reason they parted with much dissatisfaction. And the king
afterwards won the castle at Bures, and took the earl's men
therein; some of whom he sent hither to this land. On the other
hand the earl, with the assistance of the King of France, won the
castle at Argence, and took therein Roger of Poitou, (118) and
seven hundred of the king's knights with him; and afterwards that
at Hulme; and oft readily did either of them burn the towns of
the other, and also took men. Then sent the king hither to this
land, and ordered twenty thousand Englishmen to be sent out to
Normandy to his assistance; but when they came to sea, they then
had orders to return, and to pay to the king's behoof the fee
that they had taken; which was half a pound each man; and they
did so. And the earl after this, with the King of France, and
with all that he could gather together, went through the midst of
Normandy, towards Ou, where the King William was, and thought to
besiege him within; and so they advanced until they came to
Luneville. There was the King of France through cunning turned
aside; and so afterwards all the army dispersed. In the midst of
these things the King William sent after his brother Henry, who
was in the castle at Damfront; but because he could not go
through Normandy with security, he sent ships after him, and
Hugh, Earl of Chester. When, however, they should have gone
towards Ou where the king was, they went to England, and came up
at Hamton, (119) on the eve of the feast of All Saints, and here
afterwards abode; and at Christmas they were in London. In this
same year also the Welshmen gathered themselves together, and
with the French that were in Wales, or in the neighbourhood, and
had formerly seized their land, stirred up war, and broke into
many fastnesses and castles, and slew many men. And when their
followers had increased, they divided themselves into larger
parties. With some part of them fought Hugh, Earl of Shropshire,
(120) and put them to flight. Nevertheless the other part of
them all this year omitted no evil that they could do. This year
also the Scots ensnared their king, Duncan, and slew him; and
afterwards, the second time, took his uncle Dufenal to king,
through whose instruction and advice he was betrayed to death.

A.D. 1095. In this year was the King William the first four days
of Christmas at Whitsand, and after the fourth day came hither,
and landed at Dover. And Henry, the king's brother, abode in
this land until Lent, and then went over sea to Normandy, with
much treasure, on the king's behalf, against their brother, Earl
Robert, and frequently fought against the earl, and did him much
harm, both in land and in men. And then at Easter held the king
his court in Winchester; and the Earl Robert of Northumberland
would not come to court. And the king was much stirred to anger
with him for this, and sent to him, and bade him harshly, if he
would be worthy of protection, that he would come to court at
Pentecost. In this year was Easter on the eighth day before the
calends of April; and upon Easter, on the night of the feast of
St Ambrose, that is, the second before the nones of April, (121)
nearly over all this land, and almost all the night, numerous and
manifold stars were seen to fall from heaven; not by one or two,
but so thick in succession, that no man could tell it. Hereafter
at Pentecost was the king at Windsor, and all his council with
him, except the Earl of Northumberland; for the king would
neither give him hostages, nor own upon truth, that he might come
and go with security. And the king therefore ordered his army,
and went against the earl to Northumberland; and soon after he
came thither, he won many and nearly all the best of the earl's
clan in a fortress, and put them into custody; and the castle at
Tinemouth he beset until he won it, and the earl's brother
therein, and all that were with him; and afterwards went to
Bamborough, and beset the earl therein. But when the king saw
that he could not win it, then ordered he his men to make a
castle before Bamborough, and called it in his speech
"Malveisin"; that is in English, "Evil Neighbour". And he
fortified it strongly with his men, and afterwards went
southward. Then, soon after that the king was gone south, went
the earl one night out of Bamborough towards Tinemouth; but they
that were in the new castle were aware of him, and went after
him, and fought him, and wounded him, and afterwards took him.
And of those that were with him some they slew, and some they
took alive. Among these things it was made known to the king,
that the Welshmen in Wales had broken into a castle called
Montgomery, and slain the men of Earl Hugo, that should have held
it. He therefore gave orders to levy another force immediately,
and after Michaelmas went into Wales, and shifted his forces, and
went through all that land, so that the army came all together by
All Saints to Snowdon. But the Welsh always went before into the
mountains and the moors, that no man could come to them. The
king then went homeward; for he saw that he could do no more
there this winter. When the king came home again, he gave orders
to take the Earl Robert of Northumberland, and lead him to
Bamborough, and put out both his eyes, unless they that were
therein would give up the castle. His wife held it, and Morel
who was steward, and also his relative. Through this was the
castle then given up; and Morel was then in the king's court; and
through him were many both of the clergy and laity surrendered,
who with their counsels had conspired against the king. The king
had before this time commanded some to be brought into prison,
and afterwards had it very strictly proclaimed over all this
country, "That all who held land of the king, as they wished to
be considered worthy of protection, should come to court at the
time appointed." And the king commanded that the Earl Robert
should be led to Windsor, and there held in the castle. Also in
this same year, against Easter, came the pope's nuncio hither to
this land. This was Bishop Walter, a man of very good life, of
the town of Albano; and upon the day of Pentecost on the behalf
of Pope Urban he gave Archbishop Anselm his pall, and he received
him at his archiepiscopal stall in Canterbury. And Bishop Walter
remained afterwards in this land a great part of the year; and
men then sent by him the Rome-scot, (122) which they had not done
for many years before. This same year also the weather was very
unseasonable; in consequence of which throughout all this land
were all the fruits of the earth reduced to a moderate crop.

A.D. 1096. In this year held the King William his court at
Christmas in Windsor; and William Bishop of Durham died there on
new-year's day; and on the octave of the Epiphany was the king
and all his councillors at Salisbury. There Geoffry Bainard
challenged William of Ou, the king's relative, maintaining that
he had been in the conspiracy against the king. And he fought
with him, and overcame him in single combat; and after he was
overcome, the king gave orders to put out his eyes, and
afterwards to emasculate him; and his steward, William by name,
who was the son of his stepmother, the king commanded to be
hanged on a gibbet. Then was also Eoda, Earl of Champagne, the
king's son-in-law, and many others, deprived of their lands;
whilst some were led to London, and there killed. This year
also, at Easter, there was a very great stir through all this
nation and many others, on account of Urban, who was declared
Pope, though he had nothing of a see at Rome. And an immense
multitude went forth with their wives and children, that they
might make war upon the heathens. Through this expedition were
the king and his brother, Earl Robert, reconciled; so that the
king went over sea, and purchased all Normandy of him, on
condition that they should be united. And the earl afterwards
departed; and with him the Earl of Flanders, and the Earl of
Boulogne, and also many other men of rank (123). And the Earl
Robert, and they that went with him, passed the winter in Apulia;
but of the people that went by Hungary many thousands miserably
perished there and by the way. And many dragged themselves home
rueful and hunger-bitten on the approach of winter. This was a
very heavy-timed year through all England, both through the
manifold tributes, and also through the very heavy-timed hunger
that severely oppressed this earth in the course of the year. In
this year also the principal men who held this land, frequently
sent forces into Wales, and many men thereby grievously
afflicted, producing no results but destruction of men and waste
of money.

A.D. 1097. In this year was the King William at Christmas in
Normandy; and afterwards against Easter he embarked for this
land; for that he thought to hold his court at Winchester; but he
was weather-bound until Easter-eve, when he first landed at
Arundel; and for this reason held his court at Windsor. And
thereafter with a great army he went into Wales, and quickly
penetrated that land with his forces, through some of the Welsh
who were come to him, and were his guides; and he remained in
that country from midsummer nearly until August, and suffered
much loss there in men and in horses, and also in many other
things. The Welshmen, after they had revolted from the king,
chose them many elders from themselves; one of whom was called
Cadwgan, (124) who was the worthiest of them, being brother's son
to King Griffin. And when the king saw that he could do nothing
in furtherance of his will, he returned again into this land; and
soon after that he let his men build castles on the borders.
Then upon the feast of St. Michael, the fourth day before the
nones of October, (125) appeared an uncommon star, shining in the
evening, and soon hastening to set. It (126) was seen south-west,
and the ray that stood off from it was thought very long, shining
south-east. And it appeared on this wise nearly all the week.
Many men supposed that it was a comet. Soon after this
Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury obtained leave (127) of the king
(though it was contrary to the wishes of the king, as men
supposed), and went over sea; because he thought that men in this
country did little according to right and after his instruction.
And the king thereafter upon St. Martin's mass went over sea into
Normandy; but whilst he was waiting for fair weather, his court
in the county where they lay, did the most harm that ever court
or army could do in a friendly and peaceable land. This was in
all things a very heavy-timed year, and beyond measure laborious
from badness of weather, both when men attempted to till the
land, and afterwards to gather the fruits of their tilth; and
from unjust contributions they never rested. Many counties also
that were confined to London by work, were grievously oppressed
on account of the wall that they were building about the tower,
and the bridge that was nearly all afloat, and the work of the
king's hall that they were building at Westminster; and many men
perished thereby. Also in this same year soon after Michaelmas
went Edgar Etheling with an army through the king's assistance
into Scotland, and with hard fighting won that land, and drove
out the King Dufnal; and his nephew Edgar, who was son of King
Malcolm and of Margaret the queen, he there appointed king in
fealty to the King William; and afterwards again returned to

A.D. 1098. In this year at Christmas was the King William in
Normandy; and Walkelin, Bishop of Winchester, and Baldwin, Abbot
of St. Edmund's, within this tide (128) both departed. And in
this year also died Turold, Abbot of Peterborough. In the summer
of this year also, at Finchamstead in Berkshire, a pool welled
with blood, as many true men said that should see it. And Earl
Hugh was slain in Anglesey by foreign pirates, (129) and his
brother Robert was his heir, as he had settled it before with the
king. Before Michaelmas the heaven was of such an hue, as if it
were burning, nearly all the night. This was a very troublesome
year through manifold impositions; and from the abundant rains,
that ceased not all the year, nearly all the tilth in the marsh-
lands perished.

A.D. 1099. This year was the King William at midwinter in
Normandy, and at Easter came hither to land, and at Pentecost
held his court the first time in his new building at Westminster;
and there he gave the bishopric of Durham to Ranulf his chaplain,
who had long directed and governed his councils over all England.
And soon after this he went over sea, and drove the Earl Elias
out of Maine, which he reduced under his power, and so by
Michaelmas returned to this land. This year also, on the
festival of St. Martin, the sea-flood sprung up to such a height,
and did so much harm, as no man remembered that it ever did
before. And this was the first day of the new moon. And Osmond,
Bishop of Salisbury, died in Advent.

A.D. 1100. In this year the King William held his court at
Christmas in Glocester, and at Easter in Winchester, and at
Pentecost in Westminster. And at Pentecost was seen in Berkshire
at a certain town blood to well from the earth; as many said that
should see it. And thereafter on the morning after Lammas day
was the King William shot in hunting, by an arrow from his own
men, and afterwards brought to Winchester, and buried in the
cathedral. (130) This was in the thirteenth year after that he
assumed the government. He was very harsh and severe over his
land and his men, and with all his neighbours; and very
formidable; and through the counsels of evil men, that to him
were always agreeable, and through his own avarice, he was ever
tiring this nation with an army, and with unjust contributions.
For in his days all right fell to the ground, and every wrong
rose up before God and before the world. God's church he
humbled; and all the bishoprics and abbacies, whose elders fell
in his days, he either sold in fee, or held in his own hands, and
let for a certain sum; because he would be the heir of every man,
both of the clergy and laity; so that on the day that he fell he
had in his own hand the archbishopric of Canterbury, with the
bishopric of Winchester, and that of Salisbury, and eleven
abbacies, all let for a sum; and (though I may be tedious) all
that was loathsome to God and righteous men, all that was
customary in this land in his time. And for this he was loathed
by nearly all his people, and odious to God, as his end
testified: -- for he departed in the midst of his
unrighteousness, without any power of repentance or recompense
for his deeds. On the Thursday he was slain; and in the morning
afterwards buried; and after he was buried, the statesmen that
were then nigh at hand, chose his brother Henry to king. And he
immediately (131) gave the bishopric of Winchester to William
Giffard; and afterwards went to London; and on the Sunday
following, before the altar at Westminster, he promised God and
all the people, to annul all the unrighteous acts that took place
in his brother's time, and to maintain the best laws that were
valid in any king's day before him. And after this the Bishop of
London, Maurice, consecrated him king; and all in this land
submitted to him, and swore oaths, and became his men. And the
king, soon after this, by the advice of those that were about
him, allowed men to take the Bishop Ranulf of Durham, and bring
him into the Tower of London, and hold him there. Then, before
Michaelmas, came the Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury hither to
this land; as the King Henry, by the advice of his ministers had
sent after him, because he had gone out of this land for the
great wrongs that the King William did unto him. And soon
hereafter the king took him to wife Maud, daughter of Malcolm,
King of Scotland, and of Margaret the good queen, the relative of
King Edward, and of the right royal (132) race of England. And
on Martinmas day she was publicly given to him with much pomp at
Westminster, and the Archbishop Anselm wedded her to him, and
afterwards consecrated her queen. And the Archbishop Thomas of
York soon hereafter died. During the harvest of this same year
also came the Earl Robert home into Normandy, and the Earl Robert
of Flanders, Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, from Jerusalem. And as
soon as the Earl Robert came into Normandy, he was joyfully
received by all his people; except those of the castles that were
garrisoned with the King Henry's men. Against them he had many
contests and struggles.

A.D. 1101. In this year at Christmas held the King Henry his
court in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester. And soon
thereafter were the chief men in this land in a conspiracy
against the king; partly from their own great infidelity, and
also through the Earl Robert of Normandy, who with hostility
aspired to the invasion of this land. And the king afterwards
sent ships out to sea, to thwart and impede his brother; but some
of them in the time of need fell back, and turned from the king,
and surrendered themselves to the Earl Robert. Then at midsummer
went the king out to Pevensey with all his force against his
brother, and there awaited him. But in the meantime came the
Earl Robert up at Portsmouth twelve nights before Lammas; and the
king with all his force came against him. But the chief men
interceded between them, and settled the brothers on the
condition, "that the king should forego all that he held by main
strength in Normandy against the earl; and that all then in
England should have their lands again, who had lost it before
through the earl, and Earl Eustace also all his patrimony in this
land; and that the Earl Robert every year should receive from
England three thousand marks of silver; and particularly, that
whichever of the brothers should survive the other, he should be
heir of all England and also of Normandy, except the deceased
left an heir by lawful wedlock." And this twelve men of the
highest rank on either side then confirmed with an oath. And the
earl afterwards remained in this land till after Michaelmas; and
his men did much harm wherever they went, the while that the earl
continued in this land. This year also the Bishop Ranulf at
Candlemas burst out of the Tower of London by night, where he was
in confinement, and went into Normandy; through whose contrivance
and instigation mostly the Earl Robert this year sought this land
with hostility.